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I'hilip Morris is proud to be associated with the exhibition of "Edward Hop 
per: The Art and the Artist" at the Whitney Museum of American Art. 

In the course of our corporate activity in support of the arts during the 
1960s and 1970s, Phihp Morris has estabhshed close and special ties with the 
Whitney Museum and has sponsored several major exhibitions dealing with 
the history of our country and our people. 

In contemporary terms, if we want to know where we came from and who 
we are, we would do well, I bclie\e, to turn to the lifework of Edward Hopper. 
His canvas has logged much of America in the first two-thirds of the twentieth 
century, and appears to offer a comprehensive visual depiction of our modern 
character and identity. 

With frankness, precision, and sympathy, he seems to have recorded the 
everyday sense of life in the cities and towns and along the coasts of our na- 
tion. And because he did so with such stark directness. Hopper has become- 
perhaps more than any other— the major artist-biographer of this century. 

The American life he examined is now presented in all its striking fullness 
at the Whitney Museum in the most extensive and complete exhibition of his 
work ever presented. Hopper's career interlaced with the history of the Whit- 
ney at several critical junctures, and the bequest of his work to the Museum, 
of course, makes the relationship permanent. 

For Philip Morris, it is an honor to be able to contribute to the realization 
of this exhibition which expresses the association between an outstanding 
museum of .\merican art and a great American artist— an association that, one 
hopes, will inspire others. 

George Weissman 

Chairman of the Board 

Philip Morris Incorporated 


Edward ami Jo Hojjpci in Soiitli I luio \Lissachiisi Us, ii|lii). l'li(ilojj;i.i|)li ("J -^i i'"''' N<'\vinaii. 






This l)ook, published l)y W. W. Norton R: Company in association with the Whitney 
Museum of AiiKrican Ail. atcompanics the exhibition "Edward Hopper: The Art and 
the Artist" at tiie Whitney Museum, sponsored iiy Philip Morris Incorporated and the 
National Endowment for the Arts. The publication was organized at the Whitney Museum 
by Doris I'alca, Head, Publications and Sales, Sheila .Schwartz. Editor, James Leggio. Copy 
Editor, Anita Duquette, Rights and Reproductions, Angela White, Research Assistant, and 
.\nne Munroe, Assistant. 

Dates of the exhibition 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York 

.Septemljer ifi, 1980-January 25, 1981 (second floor) 

September 23. igSo-January 18, 1981 (third floor) 

Hayward Gallery. London; Arts Council of Great Britain 
February ii-March 29, 1981 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 
April 22-June 17, 1981 

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf 
July 10-Septeinber 6, 1981 

The Art Institute of Chicago 
October 3-November 29. 1981 

San Francisco Museum of Mcxlerii Art 
December i5, 1981-Februarv 14, 1982 

First published, 1980, in the United States by W. W. Norton S: Company, Inc., New ^■ork. 

All rights reserved under International and Pan-.American Copyright Conventions. Printed 
and bound by Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. 


All Rights Reserved 


Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Hopper, Edward. 1882-1967. 

Edward Hopper: the art and the artist. 

Bibliogia|3hv: p. 72. 

Includes index. 

1. Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967— Exhibitions. 

I. Levin, Gail, II. Whitney Museum 

of American Art, New York. 

ND237.H75A4 1980 759.13 79-27958 

ISBN 0-393-01374-X 

ISBN 0-393-()U082-(5 (pbk.) 

8 9 














The works by Edward Hopper now in the Permanent Collection of the 
Whitney Museum of American Art cover the full span of his creative life 
and represent the most extensive public collection of any single American 
artist. This resource, central to the history of the development of twentieth- 
century American art and particularly to American lealism, was established 
as a result of the patronage and generosity of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, 
founder of the Museum. 

In January 1920 the first one-man exhibition of Edward Hopper's 
paintings was held at the Whitney Studio Club, organized in 1918 by Mrs. 
Whitney. During these years Hopper had found no support for his work 
and was earning his living through commercial art and illustration. Mrs. 
Whitney's help came at a time when American artists were receiving little 
recognition; her commitment to Hopper was carried on by the Whitney 
Museum of American Art from its founding in 1930 until the artist's 
death in 1967. When his wife, Jo, died a year later, she left to the Museum 
their entire artistic estate, the largest bequest of the work of an American 
artist ever made to a public institution. Hopper and the Whitney Museum 
became synonymous. While this is a source of great pride in 1980, as we 
celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the founding of the Museum, it must be 
said that the bequest contained few masterpieces, and we must still attempt 
to acquire examples of the artist's finest achievements. 

The bequest of the Hopper estate presented what at first seemed to be 
an overwhelming administrative burden. The obligations it generated were 
impossible to fulfill without assistance. In 1976, six years after the bequest 

had been assciiil)lc(l at tlic Museum, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 
provided a generous grant to support curatorial research that will culmi- 
nate in a iour-volume catalogue raisonnc of Edward Hopper's paintings, 
drawings, prints, and illustrations, to Ijc published by VV. W. Norton & 
Company, in association with the Whitney Museum. Without the assistance 
of the Mellon Foinulation, for which we are extremely grateful, the bequest 
would still be in storage, withdrawn from the public, and our knowledge 
of the artist obscured. Gail Levin, with the help of the grant, was appointed 
Associate Curator, Hopper Collection, in 1976, and has prepared two 
definitive exhibitions of Hopper's work. The hrst was "Edward Hopper: 
Prints and Illustrations" in the fall of 1979, part of the prelude to the 
anniversary year. "Edward Hopper: Ihe Art and the Artist" is the second 
of these exhibitions, and presents Hopper's paintings and drawings as part 
of the 50th Anni\ ersary celebration. Both exhibitions are supported by Philip 
Morris fncorporated and the National Endowment for the Arts. Ihese two 
sponsors, the largest contributors to our exhibition programs, have each 
played a iriajor role in the life of the Whitney Museum. It is a pleasure to ac- 
knowledge their part in this endeavor so closely identified with our history. 

All research on Hopper builds upon the work of Lloyd Goodrich. His 
intimate knowledge of the artist derives from their forty-year association, 
which began when Hopper was a member of the Wliitney Studio Club and 
Goodrich was an editor of The Arts, a magazine supported by Mrs. 
Whitney. Goodrich, now an Honorary Trustee of the Museum, became 
Curator in 1935 and was Director from 1958 to 1968. His and the Whitney 
Museum's continuous recognition of I-fopper's work, particularly with the 
major retrospective exhibitions Goodrich organized in 1950 and 1964, 
strengthened the artist's ties to the Museum, residting in the Hopper be- 
quest. Goodrich's observations on the artist's life and work, published in 
books, meticulously recorded in papers and notes, and simply remembered, 
are a resource of primary importance. We are deeply indebted to him for 
his researcli and for his enthusiastic assistance with our present project. 

Edward Hopper was an exceedingly private person who, through his 
own efforts and the watchful protectiveness of his wife, sought to determine 
how much of his life and what part of his art would enter history. Gail 
Levin has diligently and resourcefully worked to reveal the complicated 
nature of Hopper's personality and the sources and evolution of his work. 
Her study now becomes a major, integral part of both the history of the 
Museum and the scholarship of American art. 

The question of what is American in American art has challenged 
scholars for a long time, and we are still seeking a cogent answer. For many, 
the light, space, solitude, and dignity of the work of Edward Hopper seem 
to epitomize the character of much of twentieth-century American art. We 
are gratified to be al)le to present a complete study of his work to the 
public and to secure his identification with the Whitney Museum. This 
would not have been possible without the assistance of many owners of his 
works who have graciously cooperated with all our efforts. I'he exhibition 
"Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist" will travel to Chicago and 
San Francisco as well as London, Amsterdam, and Diisseldori, where the work 

of Edward Hopper will be presented in depth lor the first time. A smaller 
version of the exhibition will travel to several museums in the United 
States and Eiuope in 1982. Introducing Hopper to new audiences reaffirms 
that the Whitney Museum is now, fifty years after its foimding, interna- 
tionally recognized as the most important museiun devoted to American art. 



Tom Armstrong 


Whitney Museum of American Art 


This volume is intended as a general introduction to the paintings o£ 
Edward Hopper. It is a companion volume to Edward Hopper as Illustrator 
and Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints (both published last year). The 
present book will be followed by a catalogue raisonne of Edward Hopper's 
paintings, drawings, prints, and illustrations, to be published in four 
volumes. Because the catalogue raisonne will reproduce each work in 
chronological order by medium, I have welcomed the opportunity here to 
arrange the artist's work thematically. Since so many of the subjects that 
recur throughout Hopper's career were fust explored in his boyhood work 
or, at the latest, in the work of his early maturity, much can be learned 
by examining his oeuvre in this manner. 

The retrospective exhibition accompanying this publication celebrates 
both the 5()th Anniversary of the Whitney Museum of American Art and the 
sixtieth anniversary of Hopper's first one-man show, held at the Whitney 
Studio Club, the Museum's predecessor, llie decision by Hopper and his 
wife, Jo Nivison Hopper, to bequeath their artistic estate to the Whitney 
Museum is a measure of their appreciation for the early and sustained sup- 
port his work received from this institution. 

In the process of compiling the catalogue raisonne, I have attempted to 
collect all of the Hoppers' correspondence. Either original manuscripts or 
copies of the letters from the artist or his wife referred to in this volume 
are in the Hopper archives at the Whitney Museum of American Art. In 
addition, I have assembled for the archives copies of all known newspaper 
and magazine articles which refer to the artist, as well as typescripts of 
interviews that have come to my attention. 


Uiilil his mauiagc in \[yj.{, ihc records Hoppci kept ot liis work were 
incomplete. Jo Nivison, however, proved lo l)e a devoted and exacting 
archivist; she deserves crecht tor the carelul ledgers she kept on all of the 
works Hopper exhibited, sold, or gave away. But no records exist tor those 
works, mostly drawings, that never lett ilie artist's studio. An extensive se- 
lection ot the study drawings, which reveal so well Hopper's creati\e pro- 
cess, is published here for the first time. 

I am deeply grateful to Tom Armstrong, Director of the Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art, for entrusting me with so important a project as 
the catalogue raisonne of Edward Iloppei, and tor his encouiagemenl. 
enthusiasm, and continuing support, f wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon 
Foundation, which generously suppoi led research tor the catalogue 
raisonne. I also appreciate the important support for the exhiijition that 
accompanies this publication from both Philip Morris Incorporated and 
the National Endowment for the Arts. 

Lloyd Goodiidi, whose writings on Hopper and extensive unpublished 
notes on interviews with the artist provide an important resource, has been 
a constant sotnce of cncomagement and inspiratioir. He first wrote about 
Hopper's work in an enthusiastic review for The Arts over fifty years ago. 
I am grateful for the generous loan of the ledger books Hopper bequeathed 
to liim. His early and lasting enthusiasm for Hopper's work, in the spirit 
of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney's original commitment to Hopper, resulted 
in the Hopper becjuest to the Whitney Museimi. 

Additionally, 1 have had valuable conversations with John Clancy, 
Barbara Novak, and lirian O'Doherty, who knew the Hoppers well and 
who generously shared their reiriiiriscences with me. t also wish to thank all 
those who through their personal recollections have helped me to know 
Hopper better. For information on Nyack and the Hopper family, f ap- 
preciate the assistance of Arthayer 1^. Saniiorn, Matueen Gray, and Alan 

I would like to thank all of the owners of works by Hopper who have 
shared them with me and, especially, those who have so generously loaned 
to the exhibition. Others who have helped me in many important ways 
include Dairiel Abadie, Elizabeth Cornell Benton, Florence Blauvelt, 
Milton W. Brown, Milton Cederquist, Noreen Corrigan, Joan Dayan, 
Betsy Fahlman, Lawrence A. Fleischman, Sherry Goodman, Linda Hartigan, 
\\'illiam I. Homer, April Kingsley, Robert L. Mowery, Bennard 11 Perlman, 
Helen Fair Sloan, Leo Steinberg, Helen Tittle, Berta Ward, and Judith K. 

At W. W. Norton & Company, James Mairs has provided invaluable 
support for this puijlication and supervised its realization. The sensitive 
eye of Antonina Krass, designer of this volume, has added immeastnably to 
its quality. 1 am very grateful for her skills, kindness, and understanding. 

So ambitious a series of projects as this exhibition and ptiblication and 
the forthcoming catalogue raisonne could not be attempted, much less 
accomplished, w-ithout the contributions of many people. 1 gratefidly ac- 
knowledge the cooperation ot the stalf of the Archives of American Art, 
Washington, D. C^., as well as the staffs of the many libraries 1 visited in the 

course of my research. The decUcated help I have received ironi many 
members ot the stall of the Whitney Museum has been important in the 
completion of this project. To all of them I wish to express my sincere 
appreciation, for 1 realize my good fortune in working with so many 
devoted, capable individuals on a day-to-day basis. 

The Whitney staff members who merit individual acknowledgment in- 
clude Doris Palca. She has coordinated publication arrangements for this 
volume, envisioning a beautifully illustrated book from the start. The 
successful reproduction of so many color plates which aspire to a close ap- 
proximation of Hopper's palette is due in a large part to the tireless efforts 
of Anita Duquette, who searched relentlessly for both new means and sources 
of photography. Among the many photographers, Geoffrey Clements merits 
special thanks for accomplishing a colossal amount of work in such a short 
time. Nancy McGary, the Whitney's Registrar, anci her staff deserve special 
recognition for making the complex arrangements necessary to bring these 
works to the Museum for the exhibition. John Martin and his staff of art 
preparators have also helped make this project a success. May FitzGerald, 
Librarian, deserves my thanks as well. I woidd also like to acknowledge 
Elizabeth 1 weedy Streil^ert, formerly of the Museimi's staff who did the 
preliminary cataloging work on the Hopper Ijequest. 

Angela White, my assistant, has contribiUed significantly to both the pub- 
lication and exhibition. Her good humor, dedication, and intelligence have 
facilitated my work and made it more fun. My secretary, Jane Freeman, has 
also greatly assisted me in this project through her ability, conscientiousness, 
and cheerful presence. James Leggio has copy edited this volume. For this, 
for his kindness and his help in other ways, I am most grateful. 

Barbara Matilsky, while serving as a summer intern, contributed to this 
project, as did Amy Curtis and Jacqueline Appleton, volunteer interns. 
Noel Manfre, who energetically volunteered her time and superb organiza- 
tional skills, deserves special thanks. 

Above all, Sheila Schwartz has edited this book with sensitivity and 
wisdom, offering many invaluai)le suggestions. Her generosity and en- 
couragement have made my task a much easier one. My debt to her is 
immense and my gratitude heartfelt. 

For the contents and conclusions of this book, I am of course responsible. 
I hope that the 280 color reproductions of Hopper's paintings, accompanied 
by his drawings in an affordable volimie, will inspire many to examine 
more closely his important contribiuion to the art of our century. In writ- 
ing, I have realized that, owing to the vast amount of information gathered 
and the limitations of both time and length, this book could not be defini- 
tive. If my work prompts further study, I will feel that I have succeeded. 



Gail Levin 
November 29, 1979 



"I don't know what my identity is. The critics give you an identity. And 
sometimes, even you give it a push." Edward Hopper's cynical view of the 
role of critics, as expressed here in a statement made late in life, not only 
affected the coiuse his career took, but also shaped his self-image as an 
artist. With equal cynicism, he remarked of artists in general: "Ninety 
per cent of them are forgotten ten minutes after they're dead." ^ Hopper 
was wrong about the critical estimation of his own work. In the years 
since his death, critics have continually praised his art, calling him "the 
major twentieth-century American 'realist' and one of the giants of Ameri- 
can painting." - In fact, critics have long admired the realist character of 
Hopper's work, and he himself accepted this praise. Less comprehensible 
to him was the considerable regard for his painting among proponents of 
abstract art, who early on acclaimed the aesthetic qualities of his compo- 
sition, his forms, and his light. As one writer noted. Hopper won the 
respect of abstract artists: "even during the 1950s his repiuation was secure, 
and artists sometimes coupled Jackson Pollock and Edward Hopper as twin 
poles of American individualism and artistic integrity." '^ Hopper, however, 
was dismayed by the shifting tide of critical attention toward Abstract 
Expressionism, an art he considered as untenable as that of the early Euro- 
pean modernists he had first ignored in Paris in igo6. Instead of under- 
standing the critics' simultaneous regard for both his art and Abstract 
Expressionism, he perceived the wide gap separating his carefully planned 

Edward Hopper, c. 1908. 

and execulccl (ompositioiis tioin the Al^stracl Expressionists' gestural styles, 
and probably concluded that their ad\ent threatened the continued ac- 
ceptance oi his representational art. 

Such sensitivity to critical responses, real or imagined, was always part ol 
Hopper's personalii). Until the end ol his lite, even alter nuuh success, he 
remained vulnerable to negative criticism ot his work— in part because he 
was highly selt-critical by nature and demanding ot liimselt as an artist, 
but also because comments less tlian enthusiastic raised lingering teelings ot 
self-doubt. Tliese feelings first developed dining the years he struggled for 
recognition. From 1908, when he began to participate in group exhiljitions, 
his work was initially ignored and then received disparaging notices. His 
sensitivity to criticism during these formative years made him especially 
susceptible to cultural nationalism, which had been escalating among 
American artists and critics since the turn of the twentieth century. Hopper 
foinid tlrat his deep preoccupation with French culture— acquired during 
tlrree trips to Paris (1906-7, 1909, and 1910)— was incompatible with this 
new American nationalism. His work during the 1910s revealed clear signs 
of French influence, so he responded to the critics by producing pictures 
with acceptably American subject matter. By 1924 Hopper had shitted en- 
tirely to painting liis surroundings, renoinicing French themes. In so doing, 
he liad to struggle to move beyond the overwlielming impression ot French 
art and culture that had so captivated Iris imagination.^ 

Robert Henri, Hopper's favorite teacher at the New ^ ork School of Art 
from 1903 to 1906, had encouraged his students to go abroad, perhaps be- 
cause he himself had gained so much during his several years of study and 
work in Paris. Hopper later paid tribute to his teacher when he wrote that 
Henri made the "influence of the French masters of the nineteenth century 
... of vital importance to American painting. " ■'' Yet Henri also promoted 
the development of a distinctly American art. As one of the organizers of 
The Eight, the group of painters who exhibited at the Macbeth Gallery in 
New York in February igo8, he challenged the conservative National 
Academy of Design, calling for a new art characterized by Americanism in 
subject matter— "the American idea." ^ Henri also took the lime to revise 
a definitive article on Ihe Eight (written by Mary Fanton Roberts for the 
Craftsman magazine and called "Ilie Younger American Painters: Are 
Tliey Creating a National Art?") which chastised artists who borrowed their 
style and themes exclusively from European painting, and praised The Eight 
for producing "a liome-grown art, out of our own soil." " 

Encouraged by the impact of The Eight's exhibition, fifteen of Henri's 
former students, Hopper included, organized their own independent show, 
held in the upper floor of the old Harmonie Club building on West Forty- 
second Street from March 9-31, igo8. This, the second exhibition challeng- 
ing the artistic hegemony of the National Academy of Design, was hailed 
in the press as "one step nearer to a national art": 

Here are skyscrapers, people, streets, manners and gestures of our time, of our 
country. Here is the particular air of New York. They say of New York that it 
is beautiful, not because one may find in it virtues wliich ha\e i)een admired in 

other cities, but because of its own peculiar beauties. . . . One must admire in 
them an egotistical and purely national pride. It has never before been shown 
in the work of American painters. ^ 


Hopper, however, here showing his art for the first time, had chosen to 
include three oils, The Loxnnc and Seine, The Bridge of the Arts, The 
Park at Saint Cluud, and one drawing, Une Demmiondaine [sic], all pro- 
duced in France (Pis. loi, 103, 106). He was thus the only artist in the 
exhibition who appeared to have overlooked his American surroundings. 
This distinction was not noted, however, in the few critical reviews the 
exhibition received, none of which discussed Hopper. 

Hopper's work was first singled out by critics for discussion when he 
showed two oils, the monumental Soir Bleu and a much smaller canvas. 
New York Corner, in a group exhibition at the MacDowell Club of New 
York at 108 West Fifty-fifth Street from February 11-21, 1915 (Pis. 378, 233). 
The reviewer for the New York Herald praised New York Cor7ier—"a 
perfect visualization of New York atmosphere"— but ignored the far larger 
and more impressive Soir Bleu.^ Other reviewers were not so subtle: "Ed- 
ward Hopper is not quite successful with his 'Soir Bleu,' a group of 
hardened Parisian absinthe drinkers, but he is entirely so with his 'New 
York Corner' "; and "in Edward Hopper's 'New York Corner' there is a 
completeness of expression that is scarcely discoverable in his ambitious 
fantasy, 'Soir Bleu.' " 10 Hopper's obviously French theme and style in Soir 
Bleu did not find favor in an atmosphere of burgeoning nationalism, yet 
his modest depiction of an American scene won him much sought-after 

The call for an American art was also j^ievalent among the artists and 
critics of the more avant-garde circle aroinid Alfred Stieglitz. Although 
Hopper did not subscribe to their modernist taste, he would have been 
aware that they too were defensive about American art's excessive debt to 
European models, especially after the New York Armory Show of 1913, 
where European art stole the limelight. Even Marsden Hartley, an artist 
who had borrowed freely from European art, had, in the years just after 
the First World War, come to realize the need for a more native art.^^ 
Hartley expressed these feelings in his article "Red Man Ceremonials: An 
American Plea for American Esthetics," written in Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
during the summer of 1919: 

Edward Hopper, c. 1915. 

A national esthetic consciousness is a sadly needed element in American life. 
We are not nearly so original as we fool ourselves into thinking. . . . We have 
the excellent encouragement of redman esthetics to establish ourselves firmly 
with an esthetic consciousness of our own. . . A~ 

By 1927 Hopper himself was writing of the necessity of creating a 
"native art": 

Out of the horde of camp-followers, imitators and publicity-seekers who 
attach themselves to all movements in art as in science and politics, are 
emerging certain artists of originality and intelligence who are no longer con- 

tent to 1)0 (iii/tiis ol the world ol art. Init Ijclieve that now or in tlic near 
future Anicritau art should be weaned Ironi its Freuth mother. These men 
in their work are giving concrete expression to their beliel. The "tang ol the 
soil" is becoming evident more and more in their painting. . . . We should not 
be cjuite certain ol the crystallization ol the art of America into something native 
and distinct, were it not that our drama, our literature and our architecture 
show very evident signs of doing just that thing. '•'* 


l.thsaid .liid |ii ll()p|Ki. Cape 
Maine. 1927. 

Hopper Iiad sup])rcssed his nostalgia for France four years earlier after 
making his last etching of a French tiienie, Aitx Fortifications (Fig. 1). That 
sunmier of nyj'^ in Gloucester, Mas.sathusetts, under the encouragement of 
his friend (and, later, his wife) Josephine Nivison, Hopper began to paint 
watercolors of his surroundings (Pis. 197-igg). In November 1924 he 
exhibited these watercolors in a one-man show at the Frank K. M. Rehn Gal- 
lery in New York City. It was with this "American" exhibition that Hopper, 
at the age of forty-two, finally achieved his first financial success as a painter. 
Up to this point he had been supporting himself as a commercial illustrator, 
an occupation he thoroughly disliked. 

When Hopper wrote in 1927 of the "tang of the soil," he had already 
developed his matuie style and suijject matter. His oil paintings too were 
concerned with his American surroundings— primarily city themes in winter 
and coastal New England views during the summer. The critical reception 
of Sunday, Hopper's 1926 painting of a lone man seated on a street curb, 
shown in a group exhii^ition called "America Today" at the Rehn Gallery 

Fig. 1. Edward Hopper, Aux Fortifications. 192^. Etching. 12 x 15 inches. The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New "^ork; Harris Brisbane Dick Fund. 1925. 

that year, is indicative of the critics' ongoing preoccupation with nation- 
alism, and demonstrates how well Hopper's art seemed to fit the intellectual 
currents of the igsos (PI. 160). For example, one reviewer noted: 


No question of the Americanness of this picture both as to treatment and to 
subject— a street, empty and silent: a worker, clean-shirtecl and helplessly idle . . . 
out of such commonplaceness has Hopper created beauty as well as injected 
liumor and an astute characterization of place and type.i' 

In 1927 Lloyd Goodrich, who became Hopper's most ardent critical sup- 
porter, wrote: "It is hard to think of another painter who is getting more 
of the quality of America in his canvasses than Edward Hopper." ^'' 

By the 1930s, when ctdtural nationalism came into full flower and the 
Regionalists Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, and John Steuart Curry 
were celebrated. Hopper's paintings had become more intensely personal 
and introspective. Btit they remained, at least superficially, representa- 
tions of ordinary American scenes. Critics like Thomas Craven and Peyton 
Boswell, Sr., were calling for the development of an indigenous American 
art that would ttuii its back on French modernism and express "the spirit 
of the land." i** Only Hopper's close friend and former classmate, the 
critic and painter Guy Pene di: Bois, understood that the "extremely self- 
conscious movement . . . 'the American Scene' " had made Hopper, "one 
of the most unfashionable of men," into "one of the most fashionable of 
painters." Yet, as early as 1931, du Bois saw the limitations of this move 

Edward Hopper, Sunday, 1926 (see PI. 160). 

It believes that only through a complete devotion to the American scene will an 
American art be created. It believes also that American artists are likely to lose 
their national purity in foreign lands. It would keep them provincial in thought, 
word and work.i" 

And du Bois noted prophetically: 

No painter's importance can rest so simply in that which he paints. . . . Some- 
time, Hopper will be recognized as a painter with a very sound technical ecjuip- 
ment and a superbly individual vision. is 

Despite the wisdom of du Bois' remarks, critics continued to discuss 
Hopper's work in the context of American Scene painting. A reviewer in- 
correctly described his one-man exhibition held at the Museum of Modern 
Art in 1933 as "the work of a man who has always been stubbornly Amer- 
ican, both in technique and subject matter," ignoring the five French 
caricatures included in the show.i'-* Obviously, this critic did not know of 
Hopper's Soir Bleu (PI. 378), exhibited nearly twenty years before, or even 
of his earlier paintings of Paris shown at the Whitney Studio Club in 
1920.-0 Another critic attributed Hopper's rapid rise to fame to "the fact 
that he has come in on the rising tide of nationalism," recognizing the 
"requirements of what was meant by racial quality in American art," and 

Edward Hopper, Guy Pctie du Bois, igig 
(see PI. 34). 

remarked that Hopper's work was "llic antithesis ol the type ol work pro- 
duced under domination ol French standards. " -i By 1939 Hopper was 
praised as "probably tlie finest living painter ol the American scene, [who] 
ranks just below Maurice Utrillo as a painter ot streets and their houses." -- 
This comment expresses the limitation Hopper saw in being typecast as an 
American Scene painter, tor even some of the critics who promoted this 
aesthetic continued to regard American art as provincial, in the shadow of 
the School of Paris. 

Perhaps because of Hopper's irritation with the parochial, )ei am- 
bivalent, critics who narrowly characterized his work as American Scene 
painting and overlooked his intellectual sophistication and emotional au- 
thenticity, in 1941 he chose to exhil)it a selection of his 1907-14 paintings 
at the Rehn Gallery. This exhibition, which included eleven scenes of 
France, forced some critics to recognize that Hopper's art transcended the 
limited categorization American Scene painting: 

For at least a decade and a lialf, Hopper's style has seemed to epitomize the 
sort of plastic speech that, with augmenting assurance, is termed "American." 
Indeed, suddenly confronted with evidence, it may require some effort to ad- 
just one's self to the fact that Paris has its place in the retrospective pattern of 
so American a painter's growth.23 

Despite tliis momentary recognition of Hopper's French roots, the point 
was soon forgotten and the American Scene characterization persisted— as 
did Hopper's emphatic protestations: 

The thing that makes me so mad is tlie "American Scene" business. I never tried 
to do the American scene as Benton and Curry and tlie midwestern painters 
did. I tliink the American Scene painters caricatured America. I always wanted 
to do myself. The French painters didn't talk about tiie "French Scene," or the 
English painters about the "English Scene." -^ 

Josephine N. Hopper, Edward Hopper 
Reading Robert frost, c. 1955. Oil on can- 
vas, 25 X 30 inches. Private collection. 

Hopper's intellectual sophistication made it all the inore diffictdt for him 
to accept the provincialism of "the American Scene business." That he 
respected intellectual achievement is clear from liis description of liis father 
as "an incipient intellectual who never quite made it." --' As a youth. Hop- 
per read avidly from his father's library— "the English classics and a lot of 
French and Russian in translation." Later on he continued to immerse 
himself in poetry, fiction, philosophy; literature, as well as the 
French and German writers. Over the years he indicated his fondness for 
writers as varied as Moliere, Victor Hugo, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbatid, 
Marcel Proust, Goethe, Emerson, Thomas Mann, Renan, Sherwood Ander- 
son, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, E. B. White, Robert Frost, and 
Henrik Ibsen. He also had studied the art of the European old masters 
during his years as a student and on liis travels abroad. Tliroughout his 
life Hopper maintained an interest in both European and American 
cultures. But he saw no need for nationalistic ambitions, believing instead 
that an artist responds naturally to his own heritage: "Tlie Ainerican 
quality is in a painter— he doesn't have to strive for it." ^e 

Beyond his aversion to misguided nationalism, painting was too private 
an experience for Hopper to allow it to be described in terms of political, 
social, or other extra-aesthetic critical concerns. Hopper saw his art pri- 
marily as a reflection of his own psyche: "So much of every art is an 
expression of the subconscious, that it seems to me most of all of the 
important qualities are put there imconsciously, and little of importance by 
the conscious intellect. But these are things for the psychologist to un- 
tangle." -" Indeed, Hopper was sufficiently familiar with Freud and Jung to 
include their books in a caricature (Fig. 2). And when asked what he was 
after in his 1963 painting Sun in an Empty Room (PI. 429), he replied: "I'm 
after iME." -"^ During his formative years he painted, sketched, and etched his 
self-portrait repeatedly, a process of self-analysis not entirely motivated by 
the lack of another model (Pis. 1-22). One Self -Portrait, in oil, remains from 
his mattne years, as well as two rather intense Self-Portrait sketches (Pis. 20, 
21, 22). Hopper's identification of his art with his internal feelings is empha- 
sized by a quotation from Goethe that he carried around in his wallet and 
cited for its relevance to artistic endeavor: 


The beginning and end of all literary activity is the reproduction of the world 
that surrounds me Ijy means of the world that is in me, all things being grasped, 
related, recreated, moulded and reconstructed in a personal form and an orig- 
inal manner. 29 

Fig. 2. Edward Hopper. Caricature of the 
artist as a boy holding books by Freud and 
[ung, c. 1925-35. Pencil on paper, 4% v 3!/, 
inches. Private collection. 

That he attempted in his own paintings to convey his inner state of mind 
is clear from his statement for the catalogue of his first retrospective, held 
at the Museum of Modern Art in 1933: 

I believe that the great painters, with their intellect as master, have attempted 
to force this unwilling medium of paint and canvas into a record of their emo- 
tions. I find any digression from this large aim leads me to boredom.-*" 

"When asked why he selected certain subjects over others, he replied: "I do 
not exactly know, unless it is that I believe them to be the best mediums for 
a synthesis of my inner experience." ^1 "Great art," he also wrote, "is the 
outward expression of an inner life in the artist, and this inner life will 
result in his personal vision of the world. . . . The inner life of a human 
being is a vast and varied realm." ^- 

Thus, it is important to keep in mind that Hopper was directly con- 
cerned with emotional content in his art, even though he may not have 
intended that content to be clearly interpretable. And while the meaning of 
his paintings may not always be accessible to us, Hopper's admitted search 
for personal expression invites our investigation into the nature of his per- 
sonality as a key to the understanding of his art. In his interviews, in his 
letters and those of his wife, in the large body of unexhibited work stretch- 
ing from childhood drawings to his last sketches, in the comments he made 
in his ledgers, and in the memoirs and reminiscences of those who knew him, 
are the cities to the real personality he camouflaged out of a sense of privacy 
and .self-protective anxiety (Fig. 3). 



Edward Hopper, Self-Portrait, 1945 (see PI. 

1 o 

Edward and |o Hopper in his New Vorl> 
studio, c. 1945. 

One of the most interesting sides to Hopper's character, consistently 
missed by the critics, was his romantic nature. While works such as his 
etchings Les Deux Pigeons of 1920 and Summer Aflernoon of about 1919-2^5 
(Figs. .\, 5), as well as his later paiiuing, Summer Evening of 1947 (PI. 367), 
all illustrate his nostalgic attitude toward romance in their presentation of 
couples courting, the majority of writers have perceived only loneliness. 
Although loneliness sometimes did concern him. Hopper objected to the 
critics' emphasis on it: "The loneliness thing is overdone." ^-^ On a personal 
level, he was sentimental about iiis youth and his experiences in Paris. 
This was something he shared with his wife Jo, .sending her notes and 
gieeting cards in French all through the years. Once, on the Christmas 
card he designed for her in 1923, shortly before their marriage, he depicted 
them together, reclining before an open window, with the full moon and 
the spires of Notre Dame visible in the Paris night outside (PI. 35). lieneath 
this picture he included six lines about the exquisite evening sky from 
"La June blanche," written by Verlaine for his own fiancee. All this was 
merely wishful thinking on Hopper's part, for he had not iieen in Paris 
for thirteen years and he had never been there with Jo. 

Not many people came to know Hopper intimately over his eighty-four 
years. To Jo, however, he revealed his romantic nature, his wit, and intel- 
lectual sophistication during their courtship and throughout the forty-three 
years of their marriage. Also a painter, who both understood and nurtured 

vf <i vsi' ■., dUaii I ^ f ." «»c.-^ ^ -^ '' <t^ fv^i^ «»*^' f"-™" 

A«»f?,4i«^in3«Sji— f 'il>'"J" $<L<t>u< vTlt^iJ .^rtai^ w>t |^t<Ai<vw/ k"^ 

Fig. 3. Edward Hopper, page from the art- 
ist's ledger on Office at \'ight. Collection of 
Lloyd Goodrich. 



lig. 4. Kdward Hopper, Deux Pigeons, 1920. Etching, 81/^ v 10 
inches. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Purchased, The Harrison Fund. 

I'ig. 5. Edward Hopper, Summer Afternoon, 1919-23. Etching, 81/§ x 
10 inches. Philadelphia Museum of .Art: Purchased, The Harrison 

these aspects of Hopper's personality, Jo was the object of his romance, of 
his wit, and his partner in intellectual and literary pursuits. 

Nevertheless, the Hoppers' relationship was complicated by Jo's own 
ambitions as an artist (Fig. 6). While she faithfully encouraged him, keep- 
ing precise records and protecting him from curious journalists, she re- 
sented the fact that her own painting did not command much attention. 
She was possessive, insisting that she model for all of the female figures he 
painted. As a couple, they were a study in contrasts: he, very tall and 
imposing (nearly six feet five inches), had a quiet, retiring manner; she, a 
tiny, energetic, nonstop talker, sporting a bouncing ponytail like a perpetual 
teenager. She was not fond of domestic duties and often refused to cook at 
all, preferring modest meals in diners or shabby neighborhood restaurants. 

In his interaction with Jo, Hopper's dry wit was put to good use. He 
often communicated \vith her through caricatures he drew to make very 
definite points. One, produced in the early years of their marriage and 
captioned "Status Quo," depicts Jo seated at the dinner table across from 
her cat Arthur while Edward crouches catlike on the floor begging for 
something to eat (PI. 55). Apparently feeling that she catered to her cat 
more than to him, he also desired to be pampered. In another caricature. 
Meal time, Hopper depicted himself ignored by Jo: she sits in the clouds 
reading and he, a mere skeleton, begs for food and attention (Pi. 57). 
Another time, he portrayed himself as a tall saint, complete with halo, a 
"Non-Anger man " being attacked by "Pro-Anger woman"— tiny Jo complete 
with claws (Fig. 7). Although they never had children. Hopper fantasized 
what their offspring might have been like: in his caricature Joseddy at 

Fig. 6. Josephine X. Hopper. Xortli Window 
Chez Hopper, Cape. Oil on canvas, 30 x 25 
inches. Private collection. 

1 2 


■yK ■:.■■'■■ r>-a^/*«i>^ 

age of o'/2, he somcwlial pe,s,siniislically envisioned an awkward, bowlegged 
child (Fig. 8). 

Hopper's sense ol humor, tarelully submerged, rarely suifaced in the 
somber paintings ot his maturity. ^^ Yet among his youthful works are 
sketches cajnioned "This is a comic picture you must laugh " and other 
cartoons (PI. 53). In one Irom 1900, all tour diners at a boardinghouse 
request chicken legs— to the consternation ol the landlady who liinily as- 
serts: "Gentlemen, a chicken is not a quadruped" (PI. 325). While he 
presented a very serious public veneer, Hopper remained the tease, the 
prankster, that he had been since his boyhootl when he reportedly dipped 
little girls' braids into inkwells. •'■'' Rockwell Kent later recalled their fun 
while classmates at the New York School of Art, where Hopper regularly 
participated in taunting new students.^*^ Another of Henri's students, 
Walter Tittle, who from 1913 occupied the studio adjoining Hopper's, also 
remembered pranks such as the painted replicas of bedbugs that Hopper 
once placed on his pillow: 

Hopper, for all of his semi-funereal solemnity, had an active and definite sense 
of humor all his own. This served him well from time to time wiien his periods 
of inertia would otherwise have plunged him too deeply into unbearable "ijlues." 
ft usually manifested itself in puckish nonsense, and at times in practical jokes.'*' 

Fig, 7. Edward Hopper, caricature of "Non- 
.Anger man" and "Pro-Anger woman," c. 
1925-35. Charcoal and pencil on yellow 
paper, 8y> x 5^/4 inches. Private collection. 




■^c / 

Fig. 8. Edward Hopper, Joseddy at Age of 
6'/2, c. 1925-35. Pencil on paper, 6:1/, X 514 
inches. Private collection. 

Hopper was extremely determined by nature. He preferred to live 
modestly than to make compromises in his work. He steadfastly refused to 
give up painting \\hcn for years all he could sell were illustrations. He 
worked as an illustrator only three days a week in order to allow himself 
time for his painting and his prints, which represented an important 
outlet for personal expression. Even after his later financial successes, the 
Hoppers chose to remain in the simple walk-up apartment building at 
3 W^ashington Square North to which he had first moved at the end of 1913. 
Well into his later years, when he could have afforded greater luxtiry, he 
carried buckets of coal for the stove that heated his studio (Fig. 9). And, 
whether in New \'ork or in the simple house he designed as a summer home 
on Cape Cod in 1934, he preferred bare, unembellished surroundings (Fig. 6). 

Jo encouraged his thrift, shopping for most of their clothes at Woolworth's 
and at Sears, hooking rugs from rags she collected, cooking dinner out of 
cans. She too had known years of financial struggle as both an actress and 
a painter. Never yielding to the whims of fashion, the Hoppers always 
bought used cars and drove each until it wotild run no more. They also 
wore their clothes down to the threads. Their only splurges were for fre- 
quent theater tickets, movies, and books. Hopper's economy measures, 
even during the successful years, were undoubtedly motivated by habit, btu 
no less by his self-critical nature anti lingering insecurity: he never expected 
success to last. 

Over the years. Hopper attempted to liiriit access to his personal life. Shy 
and leserved, he usually preferred to hide behind a controlled public image 
of an uncidtivated, self-made painter, working in the narrow bounds of the 
American realist tiadition, without imposing on his art any intellectual or 

Fig. (J. E(h\ai(l Hoppur in liis New \ork sludio, HJ5H. Phologiaph by (.(.'oigc Mollfll, Jr. 

private content. He insisted upon the cooperation of his sister Marion in 
keeping up this image, which was carefully orchestrated by Jo. In 1956, 
when he was being interviewed for a Time magazine cover story, Hopper 
wrote to Marion that their researchers had "probed quite enough" and 
warned that if anyone tried to interview her, "tell them absolutely nothing 
about me or our family." ^^ 

Despite Hopper's careful concern to conceal and thereby protect his own 
image, when asked by a writer about a suggestion he had made that "a 
book dealing exclusively with the lives of artists would be valuable," he 
admitted: "I didn't mean that. I meant with their characters— whether 
weak or strong, whether emotional or cold— written by people very close 
to them. The man's the work. Something doesn't come out of nothing." ^^ 

Fig. lo. Edwaiil Hopper's home in Nvatk, New ^olk. 

^ If 

Fig. 11. Edu.iid Hopper at age one year, 

Fig. 12. Garrett Henry Hopper, llie artist's 

Fig. 13. Elizabeth Griffiths Smith Hopper, 
the artist's mother. 


To fully comprehend Hopper's work, as he himself reluctantly acknowl- 
edged, is to come to terms with the artist himself— not the public persona he 
made accessible to most, but the complex personality concealed behind 
his facade. Hopper, as his work evolved, became one of the most consistent 
of all artists. He instinctually knew this, and realized that the search for his 
true character, for the reality which informed all of his art, must com- 
mence at the very beginning: 

In every artist's development the germ of the later work is always found in the 
earlier. Tlie nucleus around wliich the artist's intellect builds liis work is 
himself; tlie central ego, personality, or whatever it may be called, and this 
changes little from birtli to death. What he was once, he always is, with slight 
modification. Changing fashions in methods or subject matter alter him little 
or not at all.i 

In 1878 Elizabeth Griffiths Smith married Garrett Henry Hopper. They 
lived with her widowed mother in the small Hudson River town of Nyack, 
New York, in the house at 53 North Broadway built by her father about 
1857 (Fig. 10). Their hrst child, Marion, was born in 1880 and their second 
and last child, Edward, arrived on July 22, 1882 (Fig. 11). In 1890 Garrett 
Hopper purchased a dry goods store on South Broadway, and his son 
sometimes worked in the store after school (Fig. 12). The Hoppers were a 
solidly middle-class family, who attended the neighborhood Baptist church 
(founded by Elizabeth Hopper's grandfather in the middle of the nine- 


Fig. 14. Edward Hopper and his sister, 
Marion Hopper. 

teenlh cciUuiy), and scnl llicii childicn to the local private school for 
the early primary grades. 

Elizabeth Hopper encouraged her children's interest in art and theater 
(Fig. 13). Marion staged puppet shows and plays at their home, olten as- 
sisted by Eddie, as he was called (Eig. 14)." Eddie, the more precocious, be- 
gan to sign and date his drawings by the age ol ten (Eig. 15). The children 
weie given illustrated books to augment their imaginations. Eddie, who drew 
constantly, copied drawings from volumes by Phil May and Gustave Dore 
(PI. 58),' in addition to making little cutout soldiers and decorating the 
covers of his paint box. 

The Hoppers' home was located at the top of a hill, with a clear view 
of the Hudson River, only one block away. During Eddie's childhood, 
Nyack was a prosperous port town, with a thriving shipyard that built 
racing yachts. All sorts of boats traveled up and down the river past 
Nyack, to the iniending fascination of Eddie and his friends, who spent 
much of their free time down by the docks. They also had a variety of boats 
to play with on the local pond (Fig. 16), one of which was a catboat that 
Eddie built when he was about fifteen, with wood and tools supplied by 
his father (Fig. 17). "ft didn't sail very well," he remembered— yet at one 
time he considered pursuing a career as a naval architect.^ Hopper ex- 
plained that his father bought him materials and encouraged him to build 
the boat to get him out into the fresh air and away from the books that he 
was constantly reading. The propensity for solitude which this passion for 
reading suggests may have begun several years earlier. For at about age 
twelve. Hopper suddenly grew to six feet in height, weakening him physi- 
cally and setting him apart from his contemporaries. 

Fig. 15. Edward Hopper, Box, December 
12, 1892. Conte oil paper, 9I4 x 12I4 inches. 
Whitney .Museum of American Art, New 
\ork; Bequest of |osephiiic N. Hopper. 


.^ ■■ 

■ f ^^ 

Fig. 17. Edward Hopper and his father, Garrett Henry Hopper. 

Hopper graduated from Nyack High School in 1899 with the intention 
of becoming an artist. His parents prevailed upon him to study commercial 
illustration, which they felt would offer a more secure income. That year 
he began to commute to New York City to attend the Correspondence 
School of Illustrating at 114 West Thirty-fourth Street (Fig. 18). 

In igoo, Hopper transferred to the New York School of Art, popularly 
known as the Chase School, located at the corner of Sixth Avenue and 
Fifty-seventh Street. After two years of studying illustration, he had ac- 
quired enough self-confidence to begin to study painting with William 
Merritt Chase. As late as 1916, when conducting Saturday art classes at his 
family's house in Nyack, Hopper stated on his announcement cards that he 
had studied with Chase (Fig. 19). But it was Robert Henri, who first joined 
the faculty in the autumn of 1903, as well as Kenneth Hayes Miller, whom 
Hopper later cited as his teachers. In retrospect, he obviously felt that 
Chase's instruction had no particular influence on him; "Henri was the 
most influential teacher 1 had. Men didn't get much from Chase; there 
were mostly women in the class. . . . Henri was a magnetic teacher. ... I 
was in the life and portraiture classes of Henri." •' In later years, Hopper 
probably viewed Chase's style as regressive, particularly in comparison with 

Hopper's protestations aside, his earliest student work does show the 
influence of Chase, "the leading spirit and chief instructor" at the school.*' 
Every Monday, Chase gave a public evaluation of all students' work in a 
large studio at the school; and once a month he painted a study from the 
model before his students as a "practical demonstration of his method." '' 
Chase painted in an elegant realist style, characterized by surface virtuosity 
and broad sweeping brushstrokes. It is difficult, as we shall see, to precisely 
identify which features were inspired by Chase in Hopper's student work. 






Fig. i6. Edward Hopper as a child seated in 
a rowboat, Nyack, New York. 

Fig. i8. Edward Hopper as a young man. 

Fig. ig. Advertisement tor classes conducted by Edward Hopper in his home in Nyack. 

Bui Hopper clearly responded to Chase's advice thai siudenls visil ihe 
Melropolitan Aluscuin ol An. Chase even leclured lo his classes ihere, a 
practice later continued by Henri. wanted his students to be inspired 
by great paintings and detended the need to assimilate the advances ol 

Absolute originality in art can only be found in a man who has been lotketl in 
a dark room tioni babyhood. . . . Since we are dependent on others, let us 
hankly and openly take in all that we can. We are entitled to it. The man who 
does that with judgement will produce an original picture that will have value.'' 

Hopper's sketch ol three men in a gallery caretuUy observing the paintings 
exhibited probably documents his trips with his classmates to study hrst- 
hand the paintings ol the masters (PI. 69). 

Hopper also made sketches alter other artists, a practice that may reflect 
Chase's advice, in one case, Chase instructed his students: "Fortuny 
[JVIariano Fortuny y Carbo, 1838-74] liad a most artistic temperament. 
Everytliing lie did was interesting. Cet a complete set ol photographs ol 
Fortuny s pictures. He also worked delightlully in pen-and-ink." ■' Hopper's 
own pen-and-ink study alter Fortuny may well be a direct response to this 
suggestion (Pi. 64). His eitort to learn from the work ol others is also 
apparent in his drawings alter Regnault's Salome (PI. 63), Manet's The 
Fifer and Olympia, and Millet's Man With a Hoe (Pis. 65, 66, 67), as well 
as from his studies alter sculpture by Michelangelo, Rodin, and I'horvald- 
sen (Pis. 61, 62).io 

Hopper's early style ol drawing, in which he favored large shadowy 
masses and rubbed backgrounds, which emjjhasized the paper's texture, 
recalls drawings by Millet, or even Scurat, which he might have known in 
reproduction (Pis. 70, 71). These are among Hopper's most successlul 
youthlul ellorts as a draughtsman, for lie created an evocative atmosjjhere 
by obscuring details with dusky shadows. 

Among Hopper's earliest paintings are several in grisaille (PI. 73); he 
had probably learned to work with this palette limited to shades ol gray 
in illustration class." All ol the oil paintings Irom Hopper's student period 
are dark and thickly painted. He worked largely Irom the lile models at the 
school, sometimes depicting his lellow students at work (Fig. 20, Pis. 73, 76, 
78). As with most young artists, this was a time of searching and experi- 
mentation for Hopper, a time when his work yielded to a variety ol 

Chase's influence can be discerned in Hopper's Blond Woman Before 
an Easel (PI. 76), where the elegance with which Hopper depicts a woman 
seen from behind as she paints is reminiscent of his teacher's. Hopper's 
preliminary sketch ol her long gracelul neck and upswept hair still exists 
as a document of his working process (PI. 77). The model is painting a 
portrait, raising the possibility that she might be a member ol Chase's 
celebrated portrait class, which Hopper remembered as being composed of 
mostly women. 



Fig. 20. Robert Henri's lifedrawing class at the New York School of Art, c. 1903-4. Edward 
Hopper is third from right. 

It is difficult to distinguish Henri's influence from Chase's in the experi- 
mental, unresolved paintings of Hopper's student period. Hopper was 
generous in his praise of Henri as a teacher, although not as an artist. 
While Hopper did not learn much in the way of style from Henri, he did 
work in the dark tones recommended by his teacher to better render mood 
and atmosphere. More than teach a specific style, Henri gave his students 
a philosophy. Hopper wrote that Henri's "courage and energy" did much 
to "shape the course of art in this country," and asserted that "no single 
figure in recent American art has been so instrumental in setting free the 
hidden forces that can make the art of this country a living expression of 
its character and its people." ^^ Hopper claimed "first-hand knowledge" of 
Henri's "enthusiasm and his power to energize students," stressing that 
"few teachers of art have gotten as much out of their pupils, or given 
them so great an initial impetus." Thus Hopper msisted that Henri had 
no influence on him "other than his general philosophy of art" which he 
explained as "art is life, an expression of life, an expression of the artist 
and an interpretation of life." i^ 

Another student in the Henri class, Rockwell Kent, later referred to 
Hopper as "the John Suiger Sargent of the class" who could be expected 
to produce regularly "an obviously brilliant drawing." " Kent also praised 
Henri's teaching methods, which he contrasted to those of Chase: 

Henri's criticisms made no pretense to such showmanship as Chase delighted in. 
They were earnest and, at times, impassioned; and being almost invariably 


personal— that is, directed to one student at a time and while at work, and to 
none but suth as might be working near at hand or who had grouped them- 
selves to listen— they were mainly in the tones oi quiet conversation.!'' 

This is just the kind of personal consultation that Hopper depicted in his 
painting Student and Teacher at the Easel, which in all likelihood repre- 
sents Henri (PI. 78). 

Henri's philosophy of art contributed to Hopper's development as an 
artist. In his statement in the catalogue of his retrospective in 1933, Hopper 
wrote: "My aim in painting has always been the most exact transcription 
possible of my most intimate impressions of nature." i** 1 his closely resem- 
bles Henri's statement: "The great artist has not reproduced nature, i)ut 
has expressed by his extract the most choice sensation it has produced upon 
him." 1^ 

After Hopper left the Henri class, he worked out-of-doors for most of 
the next decade, after which he began to experiment with composing some 
of his oils in the studio through a process of improvisation often loosely 
based on memories and sketches, but in the end imaginary. The roots of 
his method of combining oljservation and imagination date back to his 
early training with Henri. In his most original conceptions, Hopper 
managed to convey an authentic sense of mood, which again recalls Henri's 
advice to his students: "Low art is just telling things, as, there is the night. 
High art gives the feel of night. Tlie latter is nearer reality although the 
former is a copy." ^'^ Here one is reminded of Hopper's subsequent fascina- 
tion with the "feel of night" in his etchings Night on the EI Train of 1918, 
Night in the Park and Night Shadows, both of 1921 and in his paintings 
Night Windows of 1928 and N ighthawks of 1942 (Pis. 381, 386, I*'igs. 50, 
21, 22). 

Henri, like Chase, encouraged his students to study artists of the past— 
particularly Manet, 'Hals, Rembrandt, Goya, Degas, and Daumier. 13ut he 
also encouraged them to read and to attend the theater. According to 
Rockwell Kent, Henri students discussed such writers as Eugene Sue, 
Verlaine, Baudelaire, and "the French Decadents in general"— discussions 
which he dubbed "in keeping with a slightly morbid overtone of Henri's 
influence." ^^ 

Guy Pene du Bois, who served as monitor of Henri's class during most of 
the years Hopper attended, recalled that Henri believed he was "creating 
a class of men" ^vho would have above all "a good strong conscience and 
the courage to live up to it." -" The class which du Bois referred to as "an 
almost miraculously inspired closely knit unit" included himself, Hopper, 
and Kent, as well as Gifford Beal, George Bellows, Homer Boss, Patrick 
Henry Bruce, Arthur E. Cederquist, Oliver N. Chaffee, Clarence K. Chat- 
terton, Glenn O. Coleman, Lawrence Dresser, Arnold Friedman, Julius Golz, 
Jr., Prosper Invernizzi, Edward Keefe, John Koopman, Vachel Lindsay, 
Walter Pach, Eugene Speicher, Carl Sprinchorn, Walter Tittle, and Clifton 
Webb. Henri advised Vachel Lindsay to abandon painting for poetry and 
Clifton Webb went into acting; but as for the rest, a surprising number 
made names for themselves as artists. 

Fig. 21. Edward Hopper, Night in the Park, 1921. Etching, 7 x 8% 
inches. Philadelphia Museum of Art; Purchased, The Harrison 

Iig. ju. l-.dwaul Hopper, Sight Shiidowi. iijiji. Etching, C)'/^ . H'v'm 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New \ork; Bequest of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1048 

Hopper also liked Kenneth Hayes Miller, his other teacher at the New 
York School of Art, whom he later credited with having "a fine sober in- 
fluence on much of our contemporary painting." -1 From Miller, Hopper 
probably learned to focus on a consideration of the picture plane, of 
spatial organization, recession, and modeling forms "in the round." The 
latter feature is reflected in the painterly Rubenesque female Hopper de- 
picted in Nude Crawling into Bed of about 1903-5 (PI. 75). Rockwell Kent 
later compared the three teachers with whom he and Hopper had studied, 
saying that Chase had taught them to use their eyes, Henri to enlist their 
hearts, while Miller insisted that they use their heads: 

Utterly disregardful of the emotional values which Henri was so insistent upon, 
and contemptuous of both the surface realism and virtuosity of Chase, Miller, 
an Artist in a far more precious sense than either, exacted a recognition of the 
tactile qualities of paint and of the elements of composition— line and mass- 
not as a means toward the re-creation of life but as the fulfillment of an end, 
aesthetic pleasure.22 

Kent saw Miller's emphasis on the elements of style as a corrective to 
Henri's disregard of it. 

During Hopper's years at the New York School of Art, his talent was first 
recognized with prizes and scholarships, and eventually with the opportu- 
nity to teach the Saturday classes in lifedrawing, painting, sketching, and 
composition.-"* In 1904 his sketch of a woman opening an umbrella was one 
of several student works selected for reproduction in an article on the New 
York School of Art that appeared in the magazine, The Sketch Book (Fig. 
23).-^ Although his name was listed as "Edward Hoppen," it was a mark of 


Fig. 23. Edward Hopper, drawing reproduced 
in The Sketch Book, April 1904, p. 233. 

his progress lo have his work included among those chosen to represent the 

By 1906 Hopper, like so many Henri students, had begtm to leel he 
should travel to Europe lo see the works ot the great masters fnsthand. He 
had started to work part-time at C C. Phillips & Company, a New \'ork 
advertising agency founded by Coles Phillips who had attended the New 
York School ot Art during 1905 (Fig. 24). But Hopper was restless with 
his work as an illustrator; indeed, he never found it .satisfying. 

With his parents' help, Hopper left for Paris in October 1906 and did 
not return until the following August. Through the Baptist chinch in 
Nyack, his parents arranged for him to live with a French family— a wid- 
owed mother and her two teenaged sons— at 48, rue de Lille, a building 
owned by the Eglise Evangelique Baptiste. Years later Hopper recalled: "1 
could just go a few steps and I'd see the Louvre across the river. From the 
corner of the Rues de liac and Lille you could see Sacre-Coetn. It hung 
like a great vision in the air above the city." -•"" In a letter to his mother 
written soon after his arrival, he expressed his delight with Paris: 

Paris is a \ery graceful and ijeauiiful city, almost too formal and sweet to the 
taste after the raw disorder of New York. Everything seems to iiave been 
plannetl with the purpose of forming a most harmonious whole which certainly 
has been done.'" 

It was not only the physical beauty of Paris that captured his imagination, 
but also the Parisians: "Every street here is alive with all sorts and condi- 

Fig. 24. Edward Hopper (light front) ai work m C. C. I'liillips •;: Company in igoli. Coles 
Phillips is seated across from him. 

tion of people, priests, nuns, students, and always the little soldiers with 
wide red pants." -' He was fascinated by their constant presence in the 
streets and cafes and by their apparent hedonism: 

The people here in fact seem to li\e in the streets, which are alive from morn- 
ing until night, not as they are in New York with that never-ending determina- 
tion for the "long-green," but with a pleasure loving crowd that doesn't care 
what it does or where it goes, so that it has a good timers 

Hopper repeatedly sketched the various Parisian types he observed and 
also produced a series of humorous watercolor caricatures (Pis. 91-96). 

Hopper did not einoll in any school, but rather chose to visit exhibitions 
on his own and to paint out-of-doors around Paris. He saw the 190!) Salon 
d'Automne, which he described to his mother as "for the most part very 
bad," although "much more liberal in its aims than the shows at home." -^ 
During his first four months in Paris it was cold and rainy, so that he could 
not paint out-of-doors as he preferred. As a result, his initial city scenes 
were dark, matching his impression of his surroundings. The dark palette, 
as in his paintings of the stairway and the interior comtyard in his i:)uilding 
on the rue de Lille (Pis. 82, 83), also matched the one he had favored as a 
student in New York. Not until the weather broke in the spring did Hop- 
per begin to respond to the famous Paris light. Although the weather may 
have affected his art, it did not dampen his immediate appreciation of the 
city's infinite charms: 



Paris as you must know, is a most paintable city, particularly on and around 
the Isle du Cite [.sic] which was the first Paris. Here the streets are very old and 
narrow and many of the houses slope back from the top of the first story which 
gives them a most imposing and solid appearance. The wine shops and stores 
beneath are darkened or green contrasting strongly with the plaster or stone 
above. On the roofs hundreds of pipes and chimney pots stick up into the air 
giving the sky a most peculiar appearance. The roofs are all Mansard type and 
either of slate or zinc. On a day that's overcast this same blue-grey permeates 

His oil painting Paris Street, with its dramatic blue-gray tonality, exempli- 
fies these first impressions of his new environment (PI. 81). The city was 
soon to capture his heart: "I do not believe there is another city on earth 
so beautiful as Paris nor another people with such an appreciation of the 
beautifuf as the French." ^^ As the weather warmed, he began to paint 
out-of-doors (Fig. 25) along the Seine and by late May he frequently took 
the boat to nearby Saint-Cloud or Charenton (Pis. 104, 105, 106).^^ 

During this time Hopper saw Patrick Henry Bruce, his former classmate 
in the Henri class who had settled in Paris in early 1904. He later acknowl- 
edged that Bruce had introduced him to the work of the Impressionists in 
Paris, "especially Sisley, Renoir, and Pissarro." ^3 j^m Hopper did not meet 
any of the avant-garde who were soon to influence Bruce, and in a later 
recollection, denied the importance of his experience in Paris: 

Fig. 25. Edward Hopper in Paris, 1907. 


Fig. 26. Claude Monet, Waterloo ISridge, 
Misty Morjiing, 1903. Oil on canvas, 25% x 
39!^ inches. I'hiladelphia .Museum of Art; 
Bequest of Anne Thomson. 

Edward Hopper, Pont da Carrousel in the 
fog, 1907 (see PI. 100). 

Whom did I inecl? Nobody. J'd heard ol Gertrude Stein, bui I don't remem- 
ber having heard of Picasso at all. I used to go to the cafes at night and sit and 
wattfi. I went to the theatre a little. Paris had no great or immediate impact 
on me. 

I went to Paris when the pointillist period was just dying out. I was some- 
what influenced by it. Perhaps I thought it was the thing I should do. So the 
things I did in Paris— the hrst things— had decidedly a rather pointillist [i.e., 
Impressionist] method. But later 1 got over that and later things done in Paris 
were more the kind of thing I do now.^* 

Comparing the technique and palette of Hopper',s student work and the 
paintings made during his first tew months abroad with those produced 
in 1907, it is evident that he learned much from the Impressionist paintings 
he saw in the galleries and salons of Paris. The first Paris paintings are 
small, tentative panels in dark, almost monochromatic tones that recall 
the dark palette ol his student days (Pis. 81, 82, 83). Moreover, the brush- 
work in these panels is rather smooth, nearly unbroken. Hopper's develop- 
ing interest in the Impressionists is readily apparent in his ambitious paint- 
ings of 1907— in Apres rnidi de Juin, Tugboat at Boulevard Saint Michel^ 
and Le Louvre et la Seine (Pis. 102, 97, 101). In the last two pictures his 
brushstrokes have become noticeably shorter and broken. And his once dark 
palette, in response to the color of spring in Paris, no less than to the 
Impressionists, is lightened in all three paintings with pastel colors remi- 
niscent of Renoir, Sisley, and Monet. Hopper later recalled of Paris: "Ihe 
light was different from anything I had known. The shadows were lumi- 
nous, more reflected light. Even under the bridges there was a certain 
luminosity." ^s This same response prompted the pinks, pale blues, and 
lavenders in Hopper's Font du Carrousel and Gare d'Orleans, as well as 
the pinks, blues, and yellows in Apres rnidi de Juin (Pis. 99, 102). Another 
light-hued painting of this period, Pont du Carrousel in the Fog (PI. 100), 
specifically evokes Monet's series depicting London's Waterloo Bridge in 
fog, gray weather, smoke, and sunlight, begun seven years earlier (Fig. 26). 
Hopper would have seen some of the Monets at Durand-Ruel's Paris 
gallery, where they had first been exhibited in the spring of 1904. 

Hopper later denied the impact of Paris on his work, as if embarrassed 
at having so eagerly absorbed the style of the French artists. But the 
letters he wrote from Paris clearly indicate his delight in the new art and 
experiences he encotnitered there. He visited many exhibitions, attended 
the theater, and even saw an automobile show held at the Grand Palais. ^"^ 
In all likelihood, he also saw Albert Marquet's one-man exhibition at the 
Galerie Druet in February 1907. Among the thirty-nine works were several 
views of places that Hopper would choose to paint in the months that 
followed; including Marquet's Notre-Darne, Qiiai des Grands-Augustins, 
Qiiai du Louvre, and Font Neuf, temps de pluie. While not derivative of 
Marquet, Hopper's palette and prosaic approach sometimes seem to be 
closer to Marquet's canvases than to some of the Impressionists. In Hop- 
per's Le Font des Arts of 1907, he appears to have adopted Marquet's style 
of summarizing the human figure with a quick brushstroke (PI. 103). 



Edward Hopper, Le Pare du Saint Cloud, 
1907 (see PI. 106). 

Fig. 27. The Park at Saint-Cloud, Paris. Photograph by Daniel Abadie. 

Certainly, Hopper's desire to repeatedly paint views of Paris corresponded to 
Marquet's own practice. 

Hopper toured all of Paris, admiring the elegant Boulevard des Capu- 
cines. a "wonderful place at night with its theatres and coloured lights . . . 
lined with cafes where the Demimondanes [sic\ sit with the silk hatted 
boulevardiers." '^' In the spring he frequented the Tuilleries garden con- 
certs and traveled by boat to Charenton and Saint-Cloud, where he painted 
out-of-doors (Pis. 104, 105, io6).-^^ In the large park at Saint-Cloud, Hopper 
turned his attention to architectural structures, such as a stairway and 
balustrade or an entrance gate and fence, as well as to the forest that other 
painters had found so attractive (PI. 423).^^ His less than accurate treatment 
of the actual perspective of this space results from compositional adjust- 
ments he is already allowing his eye to dictate (Fig. 27). 

On June 27, Hopper left for London, where he visited the National 
Gallery, the Wallace Collection, and Westminster Abbey. He found London 
"less beautiful ... in contrast to the gay sparkle of Paris," and wrote home 
about his discovery of "a little French restaurant on Soho St. where I eat 
cheaply and well. You see I could not forget the French cooking. . . ." ^o 
He soon referred to London as "a sad, gloomy place" and annoimced: 
"Who could help returning to Paris— there is nothing like it." ^i He first 
went to Amsteidam, however, to visit the Rijksmuseum, where he described 
Rembrandt's Nightwatch as "the most wonderful thing of his I have seen, 
it is past belief in its reality— it almost ainounts to deception." ^- He also 
visited Haarlem, saw there the Frans Hals paintings, and met Robert Henri, 
who was conducting a summer school for American students. 

On August 21, 1907, after very brief visits to Berlin and Brussels and 
nearly three additional weeks in Paris, Hopper sailed for New York. While 
employed as an illustrator for the Sherman & Bryan advertising agency, he 


Edward Hopper, 'ilic lind'^c tij the .lih, 
1907 (see PI. 103). 

Edward Hopper, Suiii/uer Inlcriot , 1909 (sec 
PI. 123). 

continued to paint. His fust chance to .show his work came in the group 
exhil)ilion organi/.ed by several former students of Robert Henri to protest 
the conservative tendencies of the juries at the National Academy. The 
"Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Contemporary American Artists" 
(held at 43-45 West Forty-second Street from March 9-31, 1908) included 
Arnold Friedman, Guy Pene du Bois, George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, and 
Glenn Coleman. Hopper exhibited three oils, Tlie Louxirc and Seine, The 
Bridge of the Arts, and The Park al Sanit Cloud, and one thawing, Une 
Demmiondaine [i/c] (I*ls. 101, 103, i()(3). His decision to show only work 
done in France is indicative of the importance he placed on his experience 
there. Except for Hopper and his friend du liois, who exhibited one scene 
of Paris, the other artists entered paintings of their American surroundings. 
Although, as noted earlier, the reviewer for the New York American hailed 
the exhibition as "one step nearer to a national art," Hopper's work still 
paid homage to the French capital. ^^ On the whole, the results of the exhi- 
bition were not at all encouraging to the artists who participated, for the 
show was ignored by the establishment and the majority of critics. ^^ 

Back in America, Hopper painted both what he saw around him and 
occasional remembered views of Europe. His paintings of 1908 included 
scenes of New York, such as The El Station, as well as reminiscences of 
France (Pis. 261, 120). He was surrounded by his American contemporaries; 
his palette became darker as he distanced himself from the influence of 
Impressionism and reconsidered Henri's teaching. His Railroad Tram (PI. 
262) was perhaps inspired by his own daily trip from Nyack to New York 
City— via train to Hoboken and ferry to New York. There he worked in 
his studio, but returned each evening to live with his family in Nyack. 

Hopper went back to Paris in March 1909, and resumed painting along 
the Seine. He also made excursions to Fontainebleau, Chartres, and Saint- 
Germain-en-Laye.^j He reported to his mother that he had chanced upon 
several "fellows" whom he knew from New York.^'^ j)ye to unusually 
rainy weather, he cut short his second stay in Paris, and on July 31 sailed 

The paintings that Hopper produced during this 1909 trip already mani- 
fest the solidity which would characterize his mature paintings; they also 
demonstrate a growing interest in the dramatic possibilities of light and 
shadow and an awareness of the ability of light to convey a sense of im- 
mediacy and vitality (Pis. 113, 114, 115). The color schemes of Ecluse de 
la Monnaie or Bridge on tJie Seine are darker in tone, less involved with 
the high-key pastel colors he had employed in Paris during the spring of 
1907 (Pis. 118, 117). He is fascinated by the play of stmlight and cast 
shadows. The deep shadows beneath the bridge and on the apartment 
buildings down the narrow street in the background dramatize the painted 
light in the Bridge on the Seine. The shadows are even more striking in 
the restricted color scheme of Ecluse de la Monnaie. In these paintings 
Hopper abandoned the short choppy brushstrokes so notable in the 1907 
Paris canvases. 

One of the most remarkable paintings of 1909, Summer Interior, suggests 
Hopper's future interest in depicting a female nude alone in an interior 

(PI. 123), as well as in exploring the possibilities of the interior space itself. 
Like many of the later paintings, the mood here is introspective, calm, and 
contemplative. The broad areas of solid color— the tilted green floor and 
gold wall— set up a dynamic space emphatically accented by the abrupt 
diagonal thrust of the beci. The woman's position on the door, leaning 
against the bed, with her face cast downward, heightens that sense of 
emotional intensity which Hopper would develop in his mature work. 
Although Suiiuiicr Interior was probably painted in America, just after 
Hopper returned from Paris, both the space and theme clearly recall the 
paintings of Degas and other French fmpressionists. 

When Hopper made his last trip abroad in May 1910, he stayed only a 
few weeks in Paris, preferring to make a long-anticipated trip to Spain— to 
Madrid, where he saw a bullfight, and to Toledo, which he described as "a 
wonderful old town." ^" He then spent another few weeks in Paris and on 
July 1, 1910, sailed for New York. Although he never again visited Europe, 
his memories remained vivid and the experience had a significant impact 
on his later development. 

Guy Pene du Bois, more than any other writer, perceived the depth of 
Hopper's intellectual sophistication and recognized his close friend's knowl- 
edge and admiration of French culture: "Something about the French 
appeals to him. He has studied their language and knows their literature to 
an extent exceedingly rare among Americans. He has painted Paris with 
love in a series of pictures." *** Hopper was probably reading French litera- 
ture before he first went abroad, including the romantic novels of Victor 
Hugo. His design for a cover or frontispiece to an edition of Hugo's Lcs 
Miserables was most likely done as an assignment for his illustration class 
(Fig. 28). Later, possibly just after his first trip to France in 1906-7, he 
painted an impressive series of watercolor illustrations for an unpublished 
edition of Hugo's L'Anni'e Terrible, a book of poems about the Paris 
Commune, originally published in 1872 (Fig. 29). Hopper also developed 
an interest in popular French illustration, and brought home from Paris 
three issues of Les Mailres Humoristes, and a copy of the humor magazine 
Le Sourirc for May 15, 1909.^^ 

The period following his last trip to Europe was a time of economic 
and aesthetic struggle for Hopper. In New York he continued to paint 
reminiscences of Paris (PI. 122). Years later he admitted, "It seemed 
awfully crude and raw here when I got back. It took me ten years to 
get over Europe." ''O And as late as 1962, he insisted, "I think I'm still an 
impressionist." ^^ 

Hopper's second opportunity to publicly exhibit his work w^is the "Ex- 
hibition of Independent Artists," organized primarily by John Sloan and Rob- 
ert Henri and held at 29-31 West Thirty-fifth Street from April 1-27, 1910. 
Hopper showed only one oil, The Louvre, probably because of the entrance 
fees— ten dollars for one picture and eighteen for two. His painting was not 
sold, nor did it receive special mention in the press. In all, there were 344 
entries I)y 102 artists, including Henri, Sloan, Arthur B. Davies, George Bel- 
lows, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, Ernest Lawson, William Glackens, 
Walt Kuhn, Julius Golz, Rockwell Kent, Guy Pene du Bois, and Glenn Cole- 





I'ig. 28. Etlwaril Hopper, illustration for 
Victor Hugo's Les Miserables, c. 1900-1909. 
Pen and ink on paper, 8140 x 614 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
\ork; Request of Josephine N. Hopper. 




Fig. 29. Edward Hopper, illustration for 
Victor Hugo's hook of poems I.'Annee Ter- 
rible, 1906-7 or 1909. Watercolor and ink 
on paper, ig^o x 14% inches. \Vhitney 
Museum of American Art. New ^'ork: Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.i')r,o 


Fig. 30. Robert Henri. BlackweU's Island, 
East River, 1900. Oil on canvas, 20 x 24I4 
inches. \V'hitney Mu.seum of American Art, 
New N'ork: Lawrence H. Rlocdel Request. 

Edward Hopper. BlackweU's Island, 1911 
(see PI. 124). 

mail. 1 his populai cxliibilion wa.s compared to the French Salon de.s Refuses 
because it included artists .shunned by the establishment, in this case, the 
National Academy ol Design. Participating in the show was important for 
Hopper iiecatise it iuiihcr identified him as one of the young, independent 
artists in the new movement stai ted by Robert Henri. 

Among the paintings in this exhibition repeatedly singled out Ijy critics 
was lUachwcU's Island (now Roosevelt Island) by Julius Gol/., Hopper's 
fellow student in the Henri class. Referred to as a "surprising picture " and 
praised as an "admirable view," it may have inspired Hopper to attempt 
the same subject the following year (PI. 124)."'- Hopper's BlackweU's Island, 
which has a soft blue-gray Tonalist ellect, perhaps indicates his interest in 
an exhibition of Whistler's paintings and pastels held in New \o\k at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Ait in the spring of 1910. ^^ BlackweU's Island, 
successfully conveying the bleak mood of a gray Manhattan day, may also 
owe to Hopper's knowledge of Henri's 1900 painting Blackiocll's Island, East 
Rnicr (Fig. ^50) and George Bellows' painting TJie Bridge, BlackweU's Island 
of 1909. Certainly Hopper's stress on the feeling of the locale was in keeping 
with the lessons Henri had taught him. 

Hopper next participated in a group exhibition held at the MacDowell 
Club at 108 West Fifty-fifth Street from February 22-Maich 5, 1912. Fhis 
was one of a series of jury-free exhibitions initially suggested by Henri, 
held at the club. The club allowed groups of eight to twelve artists to 
organize their own shows for two-week periods. In the February-March 
1912 show. Bellows, du Bois, Leon Kroll, Mountfort Coolidge, Randall 
Davey, Rufus J. Dryer, and May Wilson Preston exhibited along with 
Hopper. Hopper showed five oils: Valley of the Seine and British Steamer, 
both of 1908; The ]]'ine Shop (Le Bistro) and Riverboat of 1909; and the 
1911 painting, Sailing (Pis. 120, 122, 113, 125). Thus, his selection was pre- 
dominantly French— Riverboat was painted in Paris, while Valley of the 
Seine and Le Bistro were painted in America as reminiscences of France. 
Only Sailing, executed the previous summer, was American in theme. None 
of the pictures sold. 

Hopper spent the summer of 1912 in Gloucester, Massachusetts, painting 
with Leon Kroll, a former student at the Art Students League and the 
more conservative National Academy. Hopper's paintings that summer 
focused on the picturesque waterfront and the rocky shore of Gloucester. 
In the painting Squam Light, a lighthouse on Cape Ann near Annisquam 
(PI. 128), he was largely concerned with rendering solid forms with em- 
phatic lights and shadows. Hopper's handling of light as a means to achieve 
drama is also apparent in Gloucester Harbor and Tall Masts, ('iloucester 
(Pis. 126, 127). In these Gloucester scenes. Hopper's boyhood enchantment 
with the nautical world he had known along the Hudson River reasserted 

The following January Hopper again showed at the MacDowell Club, 
this time with Kroll, Henri, Bellows, and eight other artists. Again, too, 
he exhibited an example of his most recent work and one of his Paris 
pictures— .S(7!/aw Light and La Berge, neither of which sold. 

In February 1913 Hopper showed one oil painting, Sailing, in the "Inter- 
national Exhibition of Modern Art," tamiliarly known as the Armory 
Show (PI. 125). He had been invited to participate by the Domestic Exhi- 
bition Committee, which requested of all the artists that they enter "works 
in which the personal note is distinctly sounded." "^ Despite the fact that 
the avant-garde European art attracted tremendous attention and the works 
by the American participants seemed less exciting in comparison. Hopper's 
painting sold for two hiuidred and fifty dollars. ■'■^ This was his first sale of a 
painting, and, therefore, of great significance. But it did not generate the 
sale of other works, and throughout the next decade Hopper continued to 
struggle financially, able to sell only his illustrations and prints— and even 
then at very modest prices. 

In December 1913 he moved his New York studio from 53 East Fifty- 
ninth Street to 3 Washington Square North where, gradually renting addi- 
tional space as his financial situation permitted and his subsequent marriage 
necessitated, he would remain for the rest of his life. Since 1912, along with 
producing commercial advertisements, he had been illustrating for several pe- 
riodicals— 5»/ic/fl)i Magazine, The Metropolitan Magazitic, Everybody's, and 
Syster?!, the Magazine of Business (Fig. 31). He found working as an illustra- 
tor exasperating: "Partly through choice, I was never willing to hire out 
more than three days a week. I kept some time to do my own work. Illus- 
trating was a depressing experience. And I didn't get very good prices be- 
cause I didn't often do what they wanted." •'■'' Hopper's frustration at having 
to support himself in this way, as well as his love of everything French, are 
revealed in a humorous sign he made, written in French, captioned "Hopper 
Maison Fondee 1882" ("House of Hopper, founded 1882," the year of his 



Fig. 31. Edward Hopper, "Living up to your 
employment system," printed illustration 
for System, July 1913, p. 23. 

Maison E. Hopper. Objects of art and utility. Oil painting, engravings, etch- 
ings, courses in painting, drawing and literature, repairing of electric lamps 
and windows, removal and transportation of trunks, guide to the country, car- 
penter, laundry, hair dresser, fireman, transportation of trees and flowers, mar- 
riage and banquet rooms, lectures, encyclopedia of art and science, mechanic, 
rapid cures for the ill in spirit such as flightiness, frivolity and self-esteem. Re- 
duced prices for widows and orphans. Samples on request. Demand the reg- 
istered trademark. Maison E. Hopper. 3 Washington Square (Fig. 32). 

In 1914 Hopper exhibited in two more group shows at the MacDowell 
Club. In the first, from January 22 to February 1, he had two oils, Glouces- 
ter Harbor and The Bridge (PI. 126). In the second, from April 30 to May 
17, Hopper chose to return to work that he liad produced in Paris: On The 
Qiiai, Street in Paris, The Railroad, The Port, and Land of Fog (Pis. 86, 
89). Walter Tittle, his neighbor at this time and a former classmate, later re- 
called that while Hopper was "groping to find himself . . . his principal prod- 
uct consisted of occasional caricatures in a style smacking of both Degas and 
Forain, and drawing from memories of his beloved Paris." -''' 

Hopper spent the summer of 1914 painting in Ogunquit, Maine, which 
he liked well enough to return to the next summer. His pictures from 

Edward Hopper, The Railidiid. 1906-7 or 
1909 (see PI. 89). 




Pemture <xl K^ile,dr<j.vures,eaux fortes,coMrsc3ep€inture,<le<Jessein, 
ei d« li{.er4.Hire,T«(o<H'a.iion. des Idnipob &lectr«ques *?t des £cne^^ 
enlevctnei^t ei ir<in5j)OKt-eiiion. clc5iii<illes,p:uicle cJe conv^d^ne, 
cliarpfe nlier, tl Anciii sseur, CO iff euf7pompie r, imnsportAHoTv 
<i'drl)H?s ei- d* flcufs,5alle^ derioces et tie tdhQuet*,, lectures, 
encyc[op«<iie d'a^t et do science,Tn€CcinicieK,^uerison. j-Apicie 
p<:*ui>l«s'nual<x<lies dei'csprit.iel oue la, leeeteteiia.invoU't* et 
I'dwourpropre/riy /•£'<^«ii('s^/'Oi//'7c-'5 j/euivy e£ les orplie lineb 
Ech<2nii/loH<i sit/- c/»fn<2Hde,Exicrez la. fiia.r<fve Jo ^tibri<fue 

Mev.i so ri H T~i.op per 3 PIacc Wd-sKmrt torv 

Fig. 32. Edward Hopper, Maison E. Hopper 
Private collection. 

c. 1913-19. Ink on paper. 5 x 7% inches. 

EdwanI Hopper, .Veic > oik i.urnti or Cor- 
ner Saloon, 1913 (see PI. 233). 

Ogunquit concentrate on the rocky terrain and coastline, and some ot the 
local architecture (Pis. 131-135)- That autumn of 1914, trom October 10- 
31, he was able to exhibit Road in Maine at the Montross Gallery in its 
"Opening Exhibition" of the season (PI. 131). Hopper's Road in Maine, 
which captures the solitude of the empty open road enlivened only by 
sunlight and strongly cast shadows, is an early example of an important 
theme of his maturity— the open road confronted by the traveler. 

Several events of significance for Hopper occurred during 1915. First, 
his friend Martin Lewis, an Australian artist who, like Hopper, afso worked 
in commercial art and illustration, had begun to etch. He provided Hopper 
with technical advice on etching and encouraged him to try the medium. 
Hopper's initial efforts were tentative, but he would soon master the etch- 
ing process (Fig. 33). The second important event took place in February 
1915, when Hopper again participated in a group show at the MacDowell 
Club: for the first time, his work was singled out by the critics for discus- 
sion. The two paintings he exhibited were the monumental Soir Bleu of 
about 1914, and a much smaller canvas, New York Corner, of 1913 (Pis. 37H, 
233). Soir Bleu, one of the largest canvases he ever painted, represented a 
major commitment for Hopper and, at the same time, revealed his con- 
tinuing involvement with French subject matter. Although xenophobic 
critics dismissed it as only an "ambitious fantasy," praising instead the small 
New York scene. New York Corner, Soir Bleu reflects Hopper's sentimental 
recollections of a French world of intrigue and romance.^** True, he had 
only known this world as an observer on the periphery, but it had captured 
his imagination and left a lasting impression. Indeed, Hopper's French 
experience provided some of the liveliest and most exotic moments of his 
memory. In May of 1907 he had written to his mother of the "carnival" of 

Mi-Careme, which he explained was "one of the important fetes of the 



Everyone goes to tlie "Grand Boulevards" and lets himself loose. . . . Do not 
picture these in costume, they are not for the most part . . . perhaps a clown 
with a big nose, or two girls, with bare necks and short skirts. . . . The parade 
ol the queens of the halles (markets) is also one of the events. . . . Some are 
pretty but look awkward in their silk dresses and crowns, particularly as the 
broad sun displays their defects— perhaps a neck too thin or a painted face 
which shows ghastly white in the sunlight."!* 

This letter helps explain the eerie look of the standing woman with her 
painted face and long thin neck, the presence of the clown, and the scant 
attire worn Ijy the women. Hopper titled his sketch for the man on the far 
left of Soir Bleu, "iin niaquereavi" (French slang for procurer), suggesting 
that the woman with the heavily painted face is a prostitute approaching 
prospective clients (PI. 379). The cafe appears to be located on the outskirts 
of the city along the fortifications, the old ramparts encircling Paris where 
people met to socialize. 

In icpresenting a fete. Hopper was working in the tradition of the fete 
galante, a pictorial genre invented by \Vatteau in the eighteenth century, 
which explores the psychological subtleties of himian nature without re- 
verting to an overt story. Hopper's clown, dressed in white, recalls Watteau's 
Gilles, also silhouetted against a dramatic blue sky (Fig. 34). The strange 

'Fig. 34. .\ntoine Watteau, Gilles, c. 1721. 
Oil on canvas, 72 x 59 inches. Musec du 
Louvre. Paris. 


Edward Hoppci, Sun Bleu, 1914 (see I'l. 

Fig. 33. Edward Hopper in his New \ork studio, November 20, 1955 
Photograph by Sidney Waintrob, Budd Studio. 


Fig. 35. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the 
Moulin Rouge, 1892. Oil on canvas. 48% x 
5514 inches. The .Art Institute of Chicago; 
Helen Birch Bartlcti Memorial Collection. 

woman with the painted face, however, suggests a more recent inspiration— 
the ghastly colored face of Toulouse-Lautrec's lady in the right foreground 
of At the Moulin Rouge of 1892 (Fig. J55). Moreover, the man on the far 
right of Hopper's composition sits in stiff j^rofile not unlike the central 
seated figure in the Lautrec. Yet for all his borrowings, Hopper created a 
scene that is conceptually his own. None of the seven figures looks at any 
other; each one is aloof, lost in a world of personal thoughts. These are 
the kinds of figures that populate the pictures of Hopper's maturity. It is 
as if Hopper endows his painted characters with his own introspective 

Despite the negative critical reaction to Soir Bleu, Hopper remained in- 
vohcd with French imagery (PI. 378). But he never again exhibited Soir 
Bleu. He chose many French subjects for his etchings and even gave four 
prints French titles: Les Poilus and La Barriere, both of 1915-18, Les Deux 
Pigeons of 1920, and Aux Fortifications of 1923 (Figs. 36, 4, 1). Other prints 
include subject matter that is clearly French: Evening, The Seine, Cafe, 
Street in Paris, and Somewhere in France, all of 1915-18, and Train and 
Bathers of 1920. 

When Hopper next exhibited at the MacDowell Club in November 1915, 
he showed American Village of 1912, Rocks and Houses of 1914, and The 
Dories of 1914— three oils of American scenes, as if in response to the 
criticism of Soir Bleu. This time his work was ignored by the reviewers. 
Nonetheless, the three paintings were important steps in the evolution of 


Fig. 36. Edward Hopper, I.cs Poilus, 1915-18. I'tching, i)^/m v io||) inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New \'ork; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1069 

Hopper's mature style. American J'illage, the earliest of the three, is a view 
of a city street seen from high above, over a window ledge, which itself 
forms the foreground of the painting (PI. 130). Hopper would use this 
high, oblique vantage point that renders the human figures small and in- 
significant even more effectively several years later in his 1921 etching 
Night Shadoii's (Fig. 22). The blue-gray tonality of American Village, like 
that in Hopper's Blackwell's Island, creates a somber, unfriendly mood— a 
depressing glimpse at small-town America (PI. 245). This, in fact, is how 
Hopper felt about his native Nyack, which he considered cloistered, gossipy, 
and provincial. Years later Hopper would develop such city views into 
powerfully evocative and even more intensely personal works. Here, how- 
ever, his roots in the tradition of Robert Henri and The Eight are still 
quite evident. 

The experimental nature of these years of development becomes appar- 
ent when American Village is compared with The Dories, Ogunquit, and 
Rocks and Houses, Ogunquit, painted only two years later in Ogunquit 
(Pis. 133, 132). Both of these canvases are full of light; the somber tonality 
seen two years earlier has vanished. But in Rocks and Houses, Ogunquit, 
the horizontal composition is simple and straightforward— rocks, trees. New 
England wooden houses rendered in subtle tones. The Dories, Ogunquit, 
however, is strikingly open, asymmetrical, and filled with intense light and 
strong color, most notably the deep blue of the water and the softer blues 
of the sky. The rocks are highlighted with warm orange tones, while the 
dories stand out like white crescent moons on the water. The composition 
is arranged so that the viewer is drawn into the painting's depth, through 
the rocky cliffs to the strip of land highlighted in the distance. Hopper's 
achievements here would later be developed in his sunny canvases of 
nautical scenes on Cape Cod. 

About this time. Hopper began to give art instruction in Nyack, perhaps 
in the hope of doing less illustration, but certainly to earn more income. 
The classes were held in his family's house on Saturdays, and his mother 
provided the yoimg pupils with lemonade and cookies. First he had the 
students sketch with charcoal on large sheets of paper from plaster casts 
of antique sculpture, then his mother posed for them, seated in a chair; 
eventually they worked in oil (Fig. 37). One of his former students, then 
about age eleven, recalled her disappointment when Hopper, who never 
did develop much patience for children, told her mother that she was too 
silly to continue.^ 

In February 1916, eight of Hopper's Paris watercolor caricatures were 
reproduced on a page in the magazine Arts and Decoration.^^ In the first 
magazine to feature his work, he permitted himself to be represented by 
caricatures that he had made in Paris, again indicating the importance he 
placed on that aspect of his career (Pis. 91-96). 

For the summer of 1916 Hopper went to Monhegan Island, Maine, "a 
small island quite a way out to sea," where Henri, Kent, Bellows, and 
Golz had also painted. ^2 Monhegan, with "its rock-bound shores, its tower- 
ing headlands, the thundering surf with gleaming crests and emerald 
eddies, its forest and its flowering meadowlands," completely captivated 



Fig. 37. Cast of head used by Hopper for 
classes held in his mother's home in Nyack, 
New York. 


Edward Hopper, )'o)ikers or Sumiiiei Street, 
1916 (see PI. 234). 

Edward Hopper, American Village, 1912 (see 
PI. 130). 

Hopper."-' Working out-oi-doors, he jjaiiited the ishmd's extraordinary 
rugged coastline composed of liigh blufls dropping ofl dramatically into 
the turbulent sea (Pis. 145-150). He painted a series of small wood panels of 
Blackhead, his favorite view on the island; he worked from its twin head- 
land. 'Whitehead, which stretched out to sea at a height of one hundred and 
fifty feet, aliording a stiuining panorama (Pis. 140-143). Delighted with 
Monhegan, he returned to spend the next several summers there, no doui)t 
to escape the tedium of his illustration work. "Maine is so beautiful and the 
weather is so fine in the summer— that's why I come up here to rest and to 
paint a little, too." '^* Some of the paintings he produced on Monhegan 
Island approach abstraction, although in fact they were inter]jretations of 
the remarkably solid, natural forms around him as seen in light and 
shadow (Pis. 145, 152). His uneasiness about producing such abstract pic- 
tures may explain his reluctance to exhibit these works, most of which he 
withheld from public view, and is in part responsible for Alfred Barr's in- 
correct conclusion that "after a mediocre summer's work in i()i5 he began 
to devote most of his time to pot boiling illustration." <^'' 

During February 1917 Hopper showed three paintings at the MacDowell 
Club, among them Siitntncr Street, one of his earliest improvised canvases 
(PI. 234). Summer Street, which Hopper painted from memory in his 
studio, was later retitled Yonkers after the city that inspired it. An unusual 
and experimental painting with a bright, almost Post-Impressionist color 
scheme and strong blue shadows, it is thickly pigmented and full of move- 
ment and life, if not yet completely successful. 

The following spring. Hopper entered American Village and Sea at 
Ogiinquit in the "First Annual Exhibition" at the American Society of 
Independent Artists (Pis. 130, 135). He received little attention or en- 
couragement and made no sales. His commercial work, however, was flour- 
ishing; he was now illustrating regularly for the Farmer's Wife and Country 
Gentleman, and producing covers for the Wells Fargo Messenger and The 
Dry Dock Dial, the employee magazine of a shipbuilding company. 

In igi8 Hopper exhibited only his etchings, once in a show with the 
Chicago Society of Etchers, and again in a group show at the MacDowell 
Club. That October he won his first award since art school in a wartime 
poster competition conducted by the United States Shipping Board. His 
four-color poster, entitled Smash the Hun, won the first prize of three 
hundred dollars in a contest of fourteen hundred entries (PI. 155). The 
contest officials had gone on record as opposing the "German commercial 
art idea" and urged contestants to design "American posters," prompting 
the usually taciturn Hopper to write a long letter stating his opinion and 
revealing his knowledge of poster design: 

Almost every poster maker in America has been influciicecl Ijy the work ol the 
modern Germans. . . . The best German work carries at a distance, has large 
design, few tones and simple and harmonious color. Poster technit in Germany 
has been carried to a perfection that has been attained in no otlier country, liut 
it has been made of rather more importance than idea.''*' 

Praising the English, whom he said "made good use ot iilatk. and white oi 
monochrome in their work," he also indicated his own preference for 
French posters, which he described as full of feeling, "fire and vivacity." '^^ 
Winning this award brought Hopper more publicity and attention than 
he had ever known. One newspaper identified him as a "Well Known Il- 
lustrator," taking him out of the obscurity which he had long endured and 
at last placing him in the limelight. Hopper, who had managed to touch 
the very nerve of a nation at war with his emphatic poster design, described 
his intentions in making the poster. In so doing, he revealed tlie extent 
to which he already understood the potential of a figure's posture, place- 
ment, and other formal elements to convey meaning, aspects of style which 
would become significant in his mature work.^^ 

In addition to this poster Hopper also made others, including With the 
Refugees, for the American Red Cross, and various movie posters. Soon, 
however, he began to focus his attention on his etchings, which had begun 
to find acceptance through numerous juried exhibitions and .sales. 

In January of 1920 Hopper, at the age of thirty-seven, finally had his 
first one-man show of paintings— at the Whitney Studio Club at 147 West 
Fourth Street. The club, officially begun two years earlier by the sculptor 
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, was open for membership to any serious 
artist introduced by another member. Among the artists associated with 
the club in its early days were du Bois, Coleman, Sloan, Davies, Henri, 
Glackens, Sheeler, Davis, and Hopper. Evidently it was Hopper's friend 
du Bois, rather than Juliana Force, the club's director, who arranged 
Hopper's exhibition.'''' Du Bois later recalled that the show "was, curiously 
enough, composed entirely of pictures painted in Paris." "^ Of the sixteen 
oil paintings exhibited, eleven were painted in France over ten years 
earlier and the lemainder during the more recent summers spent in Massa- 
chusetts or Maine (Pis. 101, 102, 103, 106, 108, 111, 122, 128, 131, 132). 
Hopper now listed the French titles in the catalogue, rather than the 
English translations he had used for three of the same paintings in 1908. 
That he chose to exhibit primarily his French works indicates the signifi- 
cance he still attached to these pictures and his stay in Paris. During the 
exhibition, a concurrent one of drawings and etchings by his former 
teacher Kenneth Hayes Miller was held in an adjacent space at the club. 
Neither artist's work attracted many reviewers, although the reviewer for 
the Neio York Tribune did write: "Both artists express unusual talent and 
their work is well worth a visit." "i None of Hopper's paintings sold. 

The response to Hopper's etchings, however, was more positive, and he 
began to show them with increasing success, both financially and critically. 
His etching Evening ]Vind, which he exhibited that year in Los Angeles 
and in New York at the National Academy of Design, prompted one critic 
to remark that Hopper had "a genius for finding beauty in ugliness" (Fig. 
38). ^^2 jn 1923 he won awards for his etching East Side Interior of 1922 at 
both the Art Institute of Chicago and at the Los Angeles County Museum 
(Fig. 39). Etching forced Hopper to deal with compositional issues with a 
fresh intensity, enabling him to further refine his ideas into stronger and 
more consistent designs. "3 His experience producing etchings in the studio 



5^.«Br %^^ 

Edward Hopper, Smash the Hun, 1918 (see 
PI. 155). 

Fig. 38. lulwaid Hopper, Evening Hind, 1921. Ktching. 0% x 8^/4 
inches. Whitney Museum of American An, .New ^()rk; Bequest of 
|osephine N. Hopper. 70.1022 

Fig. 39. Edward Hopper, East Side Interior, 1922. Etching, 1314 x 18 
inches. VVIiitney Museum of American Art, New ^ork: I5eqiicsl of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1020. 

encouraged him to improvise both subject and composition— a creative 
process that he carried over into his oils. 

In the summer of 1923, while in Gloucester, Hopper began to paint 
watercolors of the local landscape and architecture. Except for illustrations 
and caricatures of Frenchmen, this was his first use of the medium since art 
school days. He may have been encouraged to experiment by his friend Jo 
Nivison, who was already exhibiting her own watercolors, some painted 
out-of-doors in Provincetown the previous summer. ''* Both students of 
Henri and Miller, they first met at the art .school, where Henri had painted 
a portrait of Jo in January iqoG, entitled The Art Student (Fig. 40). By 
chance, Hopper and Jo saw each other during summers in Ogunquit and on 
Monhegan Island. They were included in the same group exhibition in 
December 1922 at the Belmaison Gallery at John Wanamaker's in New 
York, and both spent the following summer in Gloucester where they went 
on sketching trips together. Although of contrasting personalities, Jo and 
Hopper shared many interests: both were well-read, had traveled in Europe, 
loved the theater, poetry, and were romantic. Years later, Jo reminisced 
that Hopper once "started quoting Verlaine on Bass Rock in Gloucester" 
and that she smprised him by continuing the poem when he stopped.''-'' 

The Brooklyn Mtiseum invited Jo to exhibit six of her watercolors in a 
group exhibition of American and European artists to be held in late 1923. 
She recalled: "1 got over there and they liked the stuff and 1 started 
writing and talking about Edward Hopper, my neighbor. . . . They knew 
him as an etcher, but they didn't know he did watercolors." Jo suggested 
that Hopper "bring some of his things over for the show." '^'^ Six of his 
watercolors were accepted for the exhibition, where they hung next to 
hers. She also remembered that he "carried my stuff back when the time 
came . . . didn't have me hauling them through the subway, what a sorry 

sight I'd have made." '' Jo's generous gesture in bringing Hopper to the 
attention of the Brooklyn Museum proved to be significant for, while the 
critics ignored her work, they raved about his. In December the Brooklyn 
Museum pinchased The Mansard Roof for one hundred dollars— Hopper's 
first sale of a painting since 1913 (PI. 197). 

Hopper later remarked of The Mansard Roof that he had painted it in 
Gloucester during the summer of 1923 "in the residential district where the 
old sea captains had their houses. ... It interested me because of the 
variety of roofs and windows, the Mansard roof, which has always inter- 
ested me. ... I sat out in the street ... it was very windy. ... I think 
it's one of my good watercolors of the early period." ''* This watercolor, 
thinly painted, is full of light and loosely executed, but with careful control 
of the medium. Hopper liked the complex shapes of the Victorian structure 
and painted a corner view so as to take in more of the angular protu- 
berances. That same summer he had also painted the other five works in 
the Brooklyn exhibition: Deck of a Beam Traivler, House With a Bay 
Window, Beam Trawler Seal, Shacks at Lanesville, and Italian Quarter, 
Gloucester. Critic Royal Cortissoz exclaimed in the Neiv York Tribune that 
he found Hopper's watercolors "exhilarating" and that "we rejoice that 
he is using the medium." '■' Helen Appleton Read wrote in the Brooklyn 
Daily Eagle that Hopper's watercolors suggested those of Winslow Homer 
and she praised them for their "vitality and force and directness" and as 
an example of "what can be done with the homeliest subject if only one 
possesses the seeing eye." *° 

Encouraged by his recent success. Hopper entered a period of unchar- 
acteristic optimism. On July 9, 1924, at the Eglise Evangel ique on West 
Sixteenth Street, shortly before his forty-second birthday, he and fo were 
married. Guy Pcne du Bois, who was the best man, visited the Hoppers in 
Gloucester, where they went for the summer, although Jo had wanted to 
go to Cape Cod. Hopper produced more watercolors over the summer and 
in that fall the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery gave him his second one-man 
show— his first in a commercial gallery. All eleven watercolors he exhibited 
and five additional ones were sold. The exhibition was a critical success as 
well. Henry McBride pronounced Hopper "interesting" and declared that 
his own enthusiasm for the artist's watercolors was "considerable," while 
the Times critic spoke of "a striking group of watercolors." ^i The more suc- 
cessful George Bellows purchased two of the watercolors. 

This exhibition proved to be the tinning point in Hopper's career, for 
he was finally able to cease working as an illustrator and devote himself 
entirely to painting. He had already given up etching a year earlier, when 
he had become preoccupied with watercolor. Now his renewed sense of 
confidence, after years of struggle, encoiuaged him to work more frequently 
in oil, tackling more ambitious canvases and working toward what would 
become his mature style. 

In 1923, he had begun to attend evening sketch classes held at the 
Whitney Studio Club, which had moved to larger quarters at 10 West 
Eighth Street. For the modest fee of twenty-five cents he could sketch from 
the life model provided (Pis. 156, 157). Soon after their marriage, however. 



Fig. 40. Robert Henri, The Art Student 
(Miss Josepliine Xivison), igo6. Oil on can- 
vas, 77V4 X 3814 inches. Milwaukee Art Cen- 
ter Collection. 


Jo insisted that she alone should pose for him, and for the rest of his 
life she modeled for all of his female figures. 

During the 1920s Hopper's mature painting style began to crystallize, 
perhaps as a result ol his experience as an etcher. When Hopper etched 
his plates in his studio, he had to rely on memory or on sketches. Thus, 
rather than work directly in front of his subject as he did in the early oils, 
he gradually learned to invent his subject matter and composition in the 
studio— an etching such duMonhcgan Boat was based on his recollection (Fig. 
41). His mature oils eventually became presentations of imagined images or 
were based on simple sketches he made on location and synthesized in his 
studio. As his mature style emerged, Hopper developed several compositional 
formats which he frequently used throughout his career. These include a 
simple frontal view parallel with the picture plane, a scene viewed at an 
angle from above, and a subject placed on an oblique diagonal axis cutting 
into tlie picture's depth. By this time. Hopper had experimented with views 
through a window both into an interior and out to an exterior space. The 
window served as both a romantic symliol of the expansive world be)ond 
and a Ijarrier separating tlie viewer-voyein from the drama within. 

In his mature style can be seen the remarkable results of Hopper's youth- 
ful experiments with light. Through the skillful manipulation of light, 
shadow, and tone, he could animate an entire composition. The light is clear 
and siiong. and onh occasionalh would he resort to the more obviously 
evocative Tonalist effect of his early paintings like BlackwcU's Island or 
American Village (Pis. 124, 130). 

Some of Hopper's transitional paintings, such as Park Entrance of about 
1918-20, which he exhibited in 1921 at the Whitney Studio Club, reveal 
the stages in his development of a mature style. Park Entrance is still 
sketchy and unresolved but, like Summer Street of 1916, it was improvised 

Fig. 41. Ldward Hopper, Monliegan Boat, 1919. Etching. 7x9 
inches. Whitney .Museum of .American .Art, New \ork: Bequest of 
Josephine .\'. Hopper. 70.1044 


Fig. 42. Edward Hopper, House on a Hill or The Buggy. Etching, 
8 X 10 inches. Philadelphia Museum of .Art: Purchased, The Harri- 
son Fund. 

in the studio (PI. 235). Hopper said that Park Entrance did not represent 
any particular place;**- the tiny figures remain quite generalized, as in 
Slimmer Street and the 1913 painting New York Corner (Pis. 234, 233). 
Hopper often excluded figures entirely from his landscapes. When present 
in his mature work, the figures are larger and given more emphasis. The 
subdued lighting of Park Entrance still recalls the tonal effects of 1912, as 
if he wished to convey the feeling of twilight. Each of these three paintings 
is viewed from above, a vantage point Hopper would use less and less in 
his mature work. 

In his East River of about 1920-23, Hopper reverted to a simpler, com- 
pletely frontal composition, and successfully relied on the intense light at 
sunrise to create drama (PI. 236). He had used a similar format in Canal 
at Charcnton, painted in France in 1907, and would later make use of it in 
his mature paintings (Pis. 303, 304, 383). He later remarked of the impro- 
vised East River scene that he thought the water was "pretty good"— an 
extravagant comment from one so self-critical.**^ 

Moonlight Interior of 1921-23 is close in mood and composition to his 
1921 etching EveniJig Wind (PL 380, Fig. 38). The scene is an intimate one, 
making the viewer asstime the role of voyeur looking in at the lone nude 
woman, as the wind suggestively disturbs the curtain at the window. 
Hopper has effectively used a limited palette of cool blue and green tones 
to convey the mood. We glimpse not only the woman unaware, but, 
through the window, a gabled house in the moonlight, setting up a tension 
between interior and exterior. Here Hopper has arrived at a theme he 
would continue to explore in his maturity. 

Hopper exploited the interior-exterior device in a different way in 
Apartment Houses of 1923, where a woman at work is seen from above 
through a window, with the building next door visible in the congested 
city (PI. 159). His interesting rendition of this domestic interior again 
makes the spectator snoop, pulled in by the unusual angular perspective. 

In Neiv York Pavements of about 1924, Hopper not only used a view 
from above, but also dramatically cropped the figure of the nurse pushing 
the baby carriage (PL 237). He had recently tried out separate aspects of 
this kind of cropped, angular composition in his 1920 etching House on a 
Hill and in Night Shadows of 1921 (Figs. 42, 22). In these etchings, as well 
as in New York Pavements, Hopper's understanding of Degas proved help- 
ful, for it taught him important compositional devices— cropping, emphatic 
diagonals, and unusual angles of vision. It is no small coincidence that Jo 
presented him with an elaborate book on Degas in 1924.^* 

With House by the Railroad of 1925, Hopper arrived at his artistic 
maturity, having resolved a variety of influences and experiments into the 
creation of a personal statement (PI. 264). In a skillfully constructed compo- 
sition, a mansard-roofed Victorian house stands starkly alone against the 
cutting edge of railroad tracks. This conception evolved from his 1920 
etching American Landscape, although in the earlier work details such as 
trees and cows distracted from the drama of the solitary house (Fig. 43). 
By contrast, the starkness of the House by the Railroad is unmitigated by 
the appearance of secondary elements. And now the once horizontal line 



Edvvaid Hopper, Moonlight Interior, 1921 
23 (see PI. 380). 

Edward Hopper, New York Pavements, 1924 
(see PI. 237). 

lig. 43. Lilwaid Hoppci, .liiu'ruan Landscape, igiio. Etching, igi'^iy 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1005 

i8J,4 inches. Whitney Museum ot .\nieiican .\il, .New York; Betjuest ol 

of the tracks cuts inward on a diagonal to create a deeper space and a 
more powerful image, one of the enduring symboLs in American art. This 
solitary house seems to recall America's more innocent past— a simpler 
moment that has been left behind by modern urban life and its complex- 
ities. Hopper has presented us with a glimpse back in time, as though seen 
by chance while passing through on the way to some other place. House 
by the Railroad seems to embody the very character of America's rootless 

t jift 








Edward Hopper, House by the Raiboad, 
1925 (see PI. 264). 

From this time forward, few significant changes occurred in Hopper's art 
or in his life. He and Jo continued to live at 3 Washington Square North, 
leaving the city every summer for the New England coast. From 1930 on, 
they spent most of their summers in South Truro on Cape Cod, where they 
built a house in 1934. 

Hopper's art, too, remained lelatively unchanged for the rest of his life. 
Hence, unlike most artists, Hopper's work cannot easily be divided into 
early, middle, and late periods, or even more complex divisions based on 
style. Rather, by the mid-igaos, after he achieved his mature style, the 
formal elements of Hopper's vocabulary altered very little. Moreover, the 
subjects that Hopper explored in his subsequent paintings were almost all 
variations on themes which had fascinated him before— as a child, a student, 
an illustrator, and a struggling artist. 


Given the remarkable consistency of both Hopper's style and choice of 
subject matter, it is more illuminating to study his mature art in terms of 
the themes he went on to investigate again and again. These themes were 
rich in personal meaning for him. Having considered the nature of Hop- 
per's personality we can better understand the underlying content of his 

As Hopper reached artistic maturity, he discarded themes that were no 
longer of interest to him. After his student period and the years immediately 
following, portraiture ceased to hold his attention and he rarely depicted 
anyone other than Jo. He eliminated the many small figures that, during 
his formative years, had animated his cityscapes in the manner of John 
Sloan. As Hopper gradually removed figures from his urban scenes entirely, 
these scenes became empty evocative settings into which he could project 
a mood. Hopper also developed certain subjects which at that time were 
unusual, if not unique, in the history of art— especially his gas stations, 
hotel lobbies, and offices. The themes that repeatedly preoccupied him 
are those under consideration here, for they reveal the core of meaning in 
Hopper's art. 


Perhaps most personal are the lone figures Hopper depicted in various 
settings, particularly interiors. As noted earlier, the nude female in Summer 
Interior of igog is one of the earliest manifestations of this theme (PI. 123). 
Characteristically, the solitary figure is presented lost in thought, as if a 


Fig. 44. Edward Hopper. Meditation, /</ 
Miles from Home, 1899. Pen. ink. and pencil 
on paper. 10 x ';% inches. Whitnev Museum 
of American .Art. Xew York: Bequest of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1605.42 

Fig. 45. Photograph owned by Edward Hop- 
per. Bicvcle track. Six-Dav Bicvcle Race. 

projection of Hopper's own introspective nature. Sometimes tlic figure is 
shown at work, as in Girl at a Sewing Machine (about u)2i), or the man 
raking leaves in Pennsylvania Coal Town (1947) (Pis. 158, 159, 169). At 
other times, people read, as does the manictnist in Barber Shop (1931), or 
just wait, as in Sunday (1926), French Six-Day Bicycle Rider (1937), or 
Sutntnertinie (1913) (Pis. 161, 160, 164, 166). Even when, as in Barber Shop 
or French Six-Day Bicycle Rider, other figures are visible, the central 
characters are psychologically remote, existing in a private space of dreams 
and contemplation. 

Hopper's interest in the young bicycle racer probabh reveals some degree 
of self-identification from his own days of bicycle riding (Fig. 44). In Novem- 
ber 1936. one year before he painted the French cyclist, he had attended the 
International Six-Day Bicycle Race held at Madison Square Garden. He later 
described his intentions in this painting: 

I did not attempt an accurate portrait, but it resembles him in a general wav. . . . 
He is supposed to be resting during the sprints while his team mate is on the 
track or at the time when "The Garden" is full in the afternoon or evening, 
when both members of a team are on the alert to see that no laps are stolen 
from them. This rider that suggested the one I painted, was young and dark 
and quite French in appearance.! 

"While at Madison Square Garden. Hopper made many quick pencil 
sketches from which he then synthesized the final composition in his studio 
(PI. 165). He had actually obtained a photograph of a bicycle rider resting 
and eating, but it served as a reminder at most, not a direct model (Fig. 45). 
In the final painting, the voung athlete's intensitv and concentration is 
Hopper's imaginative interpretation of an emotional experience rather than 
a phvsical one. 

.\mong Hopper's several paintings of solitary figures are those of women 
alone, often nude or in a state of undress, poised before a window or wait- 
ing in a doorway— for example. Eleven A.M. (1926), Morning in a City 
(1944), High Xoon (1949), and Morning Sun (1952) (Pis. 393, 394, 39S, 400). 
All of these paintings, however, are also concerned with the symbolism of 
time and arc more appropriately considered in that context (see p. 61). On 
the whole, critics have often misinterpreted these solitary figures as symbols 
of loneliness, rather than comprehended Hopper's personal preference for 
quiet and solitude. 


Hopper's love of solitude also figured in his enthusiasm tor nautical sub- 
jects which, as we have seen, began during his boyhood along the banks of 
the Hudson River. His earlv pen-and-ink sketch of a sailboat expresses the 
sense of escape and freedom that sailing gave him (PI. 171). He was not only 
drawn to sailboats— even though he eventually had to give up sailing at 
Jo's insistence— but to every type of seagoing vessel. To this attraction we 
can credit such works as his Tramp Steamer (igo8), Beam Trawler Osprey 
(1926), and Trau'lcr and Telegraph Pole (1936) (Pis. 172, 177, 178). 

Some of Hopper's most successful watercolors depict nautical themes, for 
it is in this medium that, painting on location, he was best able to capture 
the joy of sunlight, wind, and sea air. Gloucester Harbor (1926), The Dory 
(1929), and Ycnvl Rijlinga Swell (1935) bear witness to his personal involve- 
ment with this subject matter: although his vessels appear to have been 
forever frozen in motion, they convincingly convey the romance of the 
seafarer (Pis. 179, 180, 183). While perhaps some of this feeling was lost 
when Hopper transferred his conceptualizations to oils painted in the 
studio, these canvases still evoke the beauty of the sea (Pis. 185, 186, 187). 
Some of them even have a specific biographical content. Hopper remarked 
about The Martha McKean of Wellfteet (PI. 187): 

The young lady that the picture is named after has taken us sailing in Well- 
fleet harbor so often that the title has a sentimental value for us and Martha 
McKean also. The title was given purposely to please her. . . . There is no vessel 
with this name as far as I know. It was named after our friend. 2 


Hopper was naturally drawn to lighthouses, for they gave him the chance 
to combine his love of the sea and of architecture. From a simple ink 
sketch of his student days, he went on to paint the lighthouses on Monhe- 
gan Island and Cape Ann (Pis. 188, 189). He even made etchings of light- 
houses, but his most effective renditions were paintings produced in Maine 
during the late 1920s (Fig. 46). Hopper depicted the lighthouse at Two 
Lights, near Cape Elizabeth, Maine, several times in conte, oil, and water- 
color (Pis. 190, 191, 192, 193, 194). In these pictures, still working out-of- 
doors on location, he captured the stark forms of the architectine set 
dramatically against the blue sky. The buildings are bathed in sunlight, 
which animates these otherwise static images, and creates a lively contrast 
with the cast shadows. 



Fig. 40. Edward Hopper painting Light- 
house Hill at Two lights near Cape Eliza- 
beth, Maine, 1927. 


In the picturesque New England coastal village of Gloucester, Massachu- 
setts, Hopper found the kind of quaint architectural setting which en- 
chanted him, along with the intense sunlight he preferred. He first worked 
there, with his friend Leon Kroll, dining the summer of 1912. He was not 
only attracted by the boat-filled harbor, but he also began to explore the 
effect of sunlight on the interesting buildings of the village, such as in his 
canvas Italian Ouarler, Gloucester (PI. 196). This painting still includes 
the diminutive, generalized figures that populate early oils like New York 
Corner or American J'illage (Pis. 233, 130). 

When Hopper returned to Gloucester in 1923, he began to work in 
watercolor, and nearly always avoided including figures, concentrating in- 
stead on light and architecture. He worked outside, in front of the place 
he was painting, rendering the intricate forms of the wooden houses. One 
of these watercolors. The Mansard Roof of 1923, brought him acclaim 

Edward Hopper, Ligl)thousc Hill. 1927 (sec 

PI- m)- 


Fig. 47. Coki storage plant. North Truro. 
Cape Cod. 

when, a.s we have .seen, the Brooklyn Miisemn purchased it that year (PI. 
197). During the next sinnmer in Gloucester on his honeymoon, he pro- 
duced Haskell's House, where ornate architectural structures cast patterns 
of shadows in the stuilight (PI. 200). Hopper recalled: "At Gloucester when 
everyone else would be painting ships and the waterfront I'd just go around 
looking at houses. It is a solid looking town. The roofs are very bold, the 
cornices are bolder. The dormers cast very positive shadows. The sea 
captain inllucnce I guess— the boldness of ships."-' 

Hopper used watercolor with a .sense of confidence, improvising as he 
went along. He would apply the jMgments with only a pencil sketch faintly 
outlining the structures he intended to paint. What interested him was not 
the creation of textures or the manipulation of the meditim, init the 
recording of light. Light was the language through which Hopper exjjressed 
the forms and views before liim. 

In 192S Hopper spent his last summer in Gloucester. One of the water- 
colors made during that visit is Prospect Street, Gloucester, a view looking 
down toward the towers of the Portuguese church (PL 209). Here are the 
shapes and forms that fa.scinated Hopper to such a degree that six years 
later he painted an oil. Sun on Prospect Street, based upon this watercoloi 
(PI. 210). Later Hopper felt dissatisfied with the canvas, perhaps because, 
in retrospect, it seemed to lack mood or psychological statement, as well 
as the immediacy of the watercolor medium. With few exceptions his 
mature oils were painted indoors, improvised in the studio from rough 
black-and-white sketches, simple notations, and his imagination. 


Edward Hopper, Cold Storage Plant, 1933 
(see PI. 224). 

Commenting on the years he was forced to work as an illustrator. Hopper 
insisted: "I was always interested in architecture, but the editors wanted 
people waving their arms." * His interest in architecture, which is first 
evident in childhood drawings, persisted throughout his career. He often 
painted both interior and exterior views of buildings, either without 
figures, or with generalized figures as subsidiary elements. Sometimes he 
pictured specific architectural details such as rooftops (Pis. 203, 221). Oc- 
casionally, one such detail, as in House xvitli Bay Windozv, woidd become 
a focal point of whatever else might exist in the picture (PI. 213). Hopper 
knew how to crop forms severely when it suited him in order to present 
only the most visually absorbing shapes, as in his watercolor Custom House, 
Portland of 1927 (PI. 217). At times he portrayed architecture as if it were 
a stage set— particularly in oils like Pretty Penny of 1939 (PI. 228). Pretty 
Penny was actually commissioned by the owners of the house in Nyack.'* 
In his watercolors, however. Hopper made nearly accurate records of build- 
ings that he had closely observed, such as the Cold Storage Plant on Cape 
Cod, painted in 1933 (Fig. 47, PI. 224). He apparently chose to paint 
buildings not for their beauty, but for their fascinating forms— a rather 
abstract sensibility that he tried to deny when it was brought to his 
attention.*' In Tuuj Puritans (1945). the houses seem strangely aniiriated, as 

if they had personalities all their own (PI. 231). The windows, shutters, and 
doors read almost like facial features, elements of personalities that make 
their presence felt. Then, too, this work has a strange, subtle tonality 
recalling early canvases like BlackweU's Island of 1911 and Moonlight 
Interior oi :\houi 1921-23 (Pis. 124, 380). 

Hopper's visual memory was so sharply cast in terms of architecture that 
he even evaluated cities according to the kind of architecture they offered. 
In 1953 he wrote Guy Pene du Bois, who was urging him to travel once 
again to Paris: 

I agree with you about the beauty of the buildings in France and one certainly 
sees nothing as impressive in Mexico. The great cathedral in Mexico City can 
not stack up with Notre Dame de Paris or Chartres or any of the others. . . .''' 


Hopper was drawn to cities, not only for their architecture, but also for 
their interior life— the kind of scenes he observed through windows, in 
restaurants, offices, and apartments. Indeed, he had chosen to live in New 
York City to escape the limitations of small-town life. 

All of New York was subject matter for Hopper, who as late as 1935 
reminded a critic: "\ ou must not forget that I was for a time a student of 
Henri's who encoiuaged all his students to try to depict the familiar life 
about them." ** Cityscapes occiu" frequently among Hopper's early paintings, 
including BlackiveU's Island (1911), Queensborough Bridge (1913), and New 
York Corner (1913) (Pis. 124, 232, 233). The gray, misty tonality of these 
works brightens in the 1916 picture Summer Street, creating a less gloomy 
mood (PL 234). Hopper liked the buildings and bridges along the river and 
loved to depict the effects of light on them: in East River a luminosity 
at sunrise makes the tenements and factory buildings seem otherworldly 
(PI. 236). 

Hopper's mature cityscapes were generally undisturbed by human pres- 
ence. There is often an eerie feeling born of this desertion, this absence of 
activity. Drug Store (1927) is such a street seen at night— a silent, haunted 
place pregnant with possibility, where lights cast imnerving shadows (PI. 

When figures do appear in cityscapes they are often diminished, insignifi- 
cant in relation to the massive architectural environment. Thus, the tiny 
figure of a man walks away, almost out of view, in Hopper's Manhattan 
Bridge Loop (PI. 247). Hopper remarked of this painting: 



Edward Hopper, (lueeiiil)oiougli Bridge, 
1913 (see PI. 232). 

Edward Hopper. Drug Store, 1927 (see PI 

The picture was planned very carefully in my mind before starting it, but ex- 
cept for a few black and white sketches made from the fact, I had no other 
concrete data, but relied on refreshing my memory by looking often at the sub- 
ject. . . . The color, design, and form have all been subjected, consciously or 
otherwise, to considerable simplification. ^ 


He ■\vcnt on to jjiovidc a rare insight into liis conteptual mctliod: 

I spend many days usually before 1 hud a subject that I like well enough lo do. 
and spend a long time on the proportions of the canvas, so that it will do for 
the design, as nearly as possible what I wish to do. The very long horizontal 
shape of this picture, "Manhattan Bridge Loop," is an effort to give a sensation 
of great lateral extent. Carrying the main horizontal lines of the design wiiii 
little interruption to the edges of the picture, is to enforce this idea and to 
make one conscious of the spaces and elements beyond the limit of the scene 

Fig. 48. Later photograph of site Hopper 
painted in Manhattan Bridge Loop. 

Edward Hopper, Mauliattan Hridgc I.ooj) 
1928 (see PI. 247). 

A later photograph of the .site Hopper painlctl reveals the degree to which 
he was willing to manipulate the space and peispeclive he observed lor the 
purposes of compositional refinement (Fig. 48). 

Also in 1928, Hopper again painted Blackwell's Island, which he had 
once depicted in 1911 (PI. 124). I'his time he paid moie attention to the 
architecture than to the misty atmosphere of the river. Clearly his inteiesi 
in structure had de\cloped since he had fust considered the island. I lopper 
often went even further afield lo hnd subjects to paint, crossing the Hudson 
River to New Jersey for East Wind Over W'cchawken (PI. 24H). (Jloser to 
home, he painted The City in 1927, a view of Washington Square (PI. 241). 
He would sometimes travel uptown to Central Park, where he fotmd ma- 
terial for Bridle Path in 1939 and Shakespeare at Dusk in 1935 (Pis. 254, 
389). Along Riverside Drive, near the park next to the Hudson River, he 
discovered an intriguing building with a Gothic doorway and a roiuided 
bay window, which he recorded in August in the City in 1945 (PI. 258). 

Hopper's most famous cityscape is undoubtedly Early Sunday Morning 
of 1930, which he later noted "was almost a literal translation of Seventh 
Avenue." ^^ In fact, he originally titled it Seventh Avenue Shops and later 
pointed out: "It wasn't necessarily Stuiday. That word was tacked on later 
by someone else." 1- That "someone else" was obviously impressed by the 
uncanny silence of this painting. Hopper had used a similar horizontal 
format, with the strtictures parallel to the picture plane, in earlier works- 
fa,?/ River of about 1920-23 and Railroad Su?jset of 1929 (Pis. 236, 382). In 
Early Sunday Morning, however, the sense of immediacy is achieved through 
the placement of the buildings close to the picture plane (PI. 383). The 
shadows cast by the sunlight are effectively conveyed, leading the viewer out 
of the bounds of the visible, as if, as in reality, this row of shops extends 
beyond the canvas. 


While Hopper found inspiration in New York City where he resided most 
of the year, he often giew restless or found himself uirable to paint. One of 
his means of coping with this feeling was to travel with Jo. They went to 
famous tourist attractions, as well as to extremely ordinary places, in the 
falter. Hopper was often able to discover visually inteiesting subject matter 
despite the commoirplace surroundings. Although he never returned to 

Europe after 1910, he and Jo did visit Mexico several times and they 
traveled in New England, the South, and the far West. Along the way, 
Hopper became preoccupied with the psychology and environment of trav- 
elers—in hotels, motels, trains, highways, and gas stations. He found a group 
of settings and moods which offered many expressive possibilities and pro- 
duced some of his most poignant paintings. 

Trains had attracted Hopper since his childhood in Nyack when he 
often sketched them (PI. 260). He drew trains in Paris and painted Rail- 
road Train in igo8 between trips abroad (Pis. 89, 262). Perhaps more than 
trains themselves. Hopper was intrigued by train stations and the chance 
glimpses one caught while riding in trains— such as in his 1925 House by 
the Railroad (PI. 264). Trains had also preoccupied Hopper during his 
careers as an illustrator and as a printmaker.i^ 

Hopper's remarkable consistency in theme and approach is demonstrated 
by comparing his early oil painting The El Station of 1908 with Dawn in 
Pennsyhiania of 1942 and ApproacJiing a City of 1946 (Pis. 261, 281, 294). 
By 1908 he had effectively expressed his fascination with a train station and 
the sense of change which is always imminent there. It was the quiet 
moment of anticipation, when the station is deserted or nearly empty, that 
Hopper favored. He charged these scenes with drama, conveyed through 
light and through the shadows cast by ordinary structmes— but the result 
is an aura of eerie expectation. Hopper's tracks, angled from left to lower 
right, are similar in The El Station and Dawn in Pennsylvania, as is the use 
of contrasting vertical accents— chimneys in the former and smokestacks in 
the latter. Approaching a City, which actually depicts tracks passing under 
a viaduct rather than a station, recalls, in its compositional structure, one 
of Hopper's 1906-7 drawings, Figures under a Bridge in Paris, and the 
etching The Locomotive of 1923 (PI. 90, Fig. 49). 

Railroad tracks were clearly of symbolic significance to Hopper through- 
out his career (Pis. 260, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268). In Approaching a City he 
said he wanted to express "interest, curiosity, fear"— the emotions one has 
arriving by train into a strange city.i^ In works like House by the Railroad 
(1925), Lime Rock Railroad, Rockland, Me., a watercolor of 1926, and New 
York, New Haven, & Hartford (1931), Hopper used the tracks both to set 
off buildings and to lead the viewer's eye on beyond the confines of the 
picture. Railroad tracks seem to suggest for Hopper the continuity, mo- 
bility, and rootlessness of modern life as they merely pass by small towns 
and rural areas all but forgotten by the forces of progress. 

In several illustrations and etchings. Hopper had explored the theme 
of train interiors (Fig. 50). The theme still interested him years later, when 
he painted Compartment C, Car 293 (PL 272). His subject is a solitary 
woman engrossed in reading, while the landscape passing outside the win- 
dow goes unobserved except by the viewer. The overall green tonality and 
the harsh glare of the electric bulbs cast this picture in a light that disturbs 
an otherwise calm and quiet mood. One of Hopper's rough sketches for 
this painting shows that he once considered having the woman turn and 
look out the window rather than read (PI. 273). His final resolution seems 
more deliberately introspective. 



Edward Hopper, April 1959. Huntington 
Hartford Foundation. Pacific Palisades, 

Edward Hopper, Approaching a City, 1946 
(see PI. 294). 

Fig. 49. Edward Hopper. The Locomotive, 1922. Etching. igS/ie x 16% inches. Whitney 
Museum of .\merican Art, New ^■ork■, Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1039 

^V A WL 

Edward Hopper, Compartment C, Car 295. 
1938 (see PI. 272). 

Fig. 50. Edward Hopper, Night on the El Train, 1918. Etching, 71/, v 8 inches. Philadelphia 
Museuin of .Art: Purchased, The Harri.son Fund. 

This kind of mood is expressed with much greater severity in Chair Car 
of 1965, one of Hopper's last paintings (PI. 305). It is a very strange setting: 
a high ceiling, with glaring sunlight pouring in through the window 
obscuring the exterior world entirely. The chairs, like the space itself, seem 
too large. The ciaious gaze of the woman on the left, who looks across the 
aisle at the woman reading, is perhaps a projection of Hopper's own 
observations while riding in parlor cars.^-* 

Reaching his various destinations, usually accompanied by Jo, Hopper 
found provocative settings in hotel bedrooms and lobbies. The first of 
these canvases, and perhaps the greatest, is Hotel Room, a large oil of 1931 
(PI. 269). In Hopper's best works, a masterful geometric simplicity achieves 
monumentality. The spare vertical and diagonal bands of color and sharp 
electric shadows in Hotel Room present a concise and intense drama in the 
night. The tall, slender, pensive woman sits on a bed, head downward, 
pondering the letter she' has just read. Whatever she has learned in the 
letter confuses and upsets her, as Hopper conveys by the clothing strewn 
about the room. Combining poignant subject matter with such a powerful 
formal arrangement, Hopper produced a composition of strength and re- 
finement—pure enough to approach an almost abstract sensibility— yet 
layered with poetic meaning for the observer. 

Hopper's interest in the psychology of his figures is revealed by compar- 
ing his 1943 painting Hotel Lobby with several of the preparatory drawings 
(Pis. 283, 284, 285, 286, 287). In the painting, an old man, standing near a 
seated woman who is presumably his wife, does not look or tiun toward 
her, but rather casts his gaze blankly ahead. Across the room, an attractive 
young woman sits, relaxed and engrossed in her reading. There is very 
little communication in the picture, only the older woman regards the old 
man, but he does not respond to her glance. In one of the preparatory 
drawings, howe\er, a man sits in the place of the young woman. He does 
not read; rather he stares blankly across the room (PI. 284). He sees the 
older man and woman engrossed in conversation; the man turns toward 
her and rests his arm on the back of her chair. Still another female figure 
sits in the chair adjacent to the couple, which in the painting is empty. 
In the evolution from drawings to the final painting. Hopper apparently 
tried to accentuate the sense of noncommunication, to reveal a poignant 
lack of emotional interaction. It is likely that the drawings reflect the 
figures he actually observed in the lobby, while the painting demonstrates 
the changes he made to create drama. Other sketches show how Hopper 
had Jo j)ose for both the older woman in the hat and the )oimger woman 
reading (Pis. 286, 287). 

The psychological drama of Hotel Lobby is repeated in Hopper's Hotel 
by a Railroad of 1952, only in a more intimate setting— an older couple's 
bedroom (PI. 297). What is again shown is a lack of communication. She 
reads and he gazes somewhat longingly out the window, at the railroad 
tracks. Bleak and wistful, impatiently waiting to depart, he seems to wish 
he were elsewhere. A similar longing for places beyond the window and a 
sense of waiting characterize Hotel Window of 1956 and Western Motel of 
1957 (Pis. 300, 302). In Western Motel the woman also appears anxious, as 



Edward Hopper, Hotel I.obl)y, 1943 (see PI. 

Edward Hopper, drawing for painting, Ho- 
tel Lobby, 1943 (see PI. 284). 


Edward Hopper. Rooms for 
(see PI. 290). 




Fig. 51. Edward Hopper, letter to his 
mother, July 27, 1925. Pen and ink on 
paper, 8% x 5% inches. Private collection. 

she wails 10 di ivf oil in tlic car, whirl) is visible through the window, with 
the luggage lelt in the foregioiuul. Interestingly, Hopper's sketch for 
Hotel ]\'in(l(nv indicates that he initially considered placing a man reading 
across ironi the woman— again absence of conuiiiniication (PI. '^01). In 
Rooms for Tourisls of 19.15 Hopper portrayed the exterior cjf a cpiaint 
boardinghouse in Provincetown, Massachusetts: the contrast between the 
darkened stieel and the warmly lit interior convey the traveler's sense of 
liansience— at last finding respite from the night in an unfamiliar setting 
(PI. 290). He made study drawings of this house, and liien traveled there 
repeatedly at night while he painted it (Pis. 291, 292, 29^5). 

For inspiration, Hopper also liked to drive, particularly in ruial New 
England (fo used to complain that he would not let her take the wheel). 
Hence, highways and filling stations appear as subjects in these paintings 
(Pis. 275, 278, ;.'88, 2C)()). He obviously enjoyed the solitude of the cjuiet 
cotuitry road. I'he woman shouting at the gas station attendant in Four 
Lane Road of i95() was probably inspired by Jo's garrulous nature (Pi. 
296). Hopper's joyful contemplation of a peaceful country road is especially 
evident in Sulitude of 1944 (PI. 288). Again, as in Two Puritans, this little 
house seems to have a personality all its own (PI. 231). Hopper's i9()L' Road 
and Trees is remarkable not only for the enchantingly deep, dark woods 
which the highway passes gracefully by, but for its striking compositional 
similarity to his much earlier canvas Canal at Charenton, painted in France 
in it)()7 (Pis. 303, '50]). Both compositions are arranged in horizontal bands 
stretching across the canvas— simple, frontal compositions that make a 
direct visual statement. 

Perliaps Hopper's most effective highway painting, the 1940 Gas, evokes 
the anxious feelings of isolation one can confront alone at nightfall on a 
country road (PI. 275). The composition is arranged to carry our eye past 
the brightly lit oasis into the dense, dark, atid threatening woods beyond. 
No actual site is represented; rather. Hopper made several sketches of 
various places, and then invented his own synthesis in the studio— in fact, 
he rarely made oil paintings while away from the studio after the 1920s. 


"To me the most important thing is the sense of going on. You know 
how bcatitiful things are when you're traveling." i** In recording local color, 
often in watercolors, he tended to choose unusual subjects rather than 
typical tourist sights. Always, he portrayed a sense of place with a notably 
individual vision. His trip to Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the simimer of 1925 
was characteristic. He found it difficult to work with such picturesque 
beauty and intensity of light. At first he painted a train there, but eventu- 
ally he made watercolors of local sights— .S7. Michael's College, Adobe 
Houses, and Si. Francis Tower, Santa Fe (Pis. 306, 308, 310). He and Jo 
went horseback riding, as he reported to his mother in a letter accompanied 
by cartoons of him and Jo in their new environment (Fig. 51): 

Jo and I and some others took a twenty five mile horseback ride rlirous^li the 
mountains yesterday. It Ijcin^ only the filth time I had rickleii I thought much 

more about the hard saddle than I did of the mountains, but they seemed fine 
when I could look at them.i'^ 



Two other locales that prompted unusual watercolors were Charleston, 
South Carolina, which he visited in 1929, and Mexico, where he and Jo 
first traveled in 1943. In Charleston, Hopper tried the unusual procedure 
of making a finished drawing before he attempted a watercolor of the same 
subject (Pis. 311, 312). Interestingly, he never finished painting the sky of 
Cabin, Charleston, S.C. He also executed a very atypical still-life drawing 
of a cloth he oliserved and later painted in its setting in the Baptistry of 
Saint John's (Pis. 313, 314). 

On his first trip to Mexico (he returned several times during the 1940s 
and early 1950s), Hopper made watercolors of the local architecture in 
Saltillo, a small town in the north (Pis. 320, 321). These were less spon- 
taneous, more carefully painted than his earlier watercolors had been. He 
also made watercolors of the Mexican landscape and pencil sketches of 
some of the natives in colorful costumes. Hopper liked what he saw in 
Mexico but he did not find there the kind of visual stimulation he had 
once found in Paris. Writing to Guy Pene du Bois in Paris, Hopper ad- 
mitted that "France has quite an edge on Mexico," and then explained why 
he had made several trips to Mexico and never returned to Paris: 

Edward Hopper. Le Bistro or The ]Vine 
Shop, 1909 (see Fl. 122). 

The thing is that to get to Mexico all you have to do is put your luggage in 
your car at the door and drive until you get there— as easy as that! Getting back 
into the States is somewhat more bothersome because of the U. S. Customs, bui 
one can put up with it and one does not get seasick on the 


From his youth, Hopper had observed people in restaurants— he sketched 
one such scene when he was only fourteen (PI. 324). Here his interest was in 
the interaction of the diners and waiters, in the spatial arrangement, and 
in the setting. Just after he returned from Paris in i9ot), he painted Le 
Bistro, a reminiscence of a couple sitting in a cafe along the Seine (PI. 122). 
He etched several scenes set in French cafes (Fig. 4); as an illustrator, he also 
represented restaurants and cafe scenes. ^^ Hopper explained Ncru York 
Restaurant of about 1922 (PL 326), which was the first restaurant painting 
of his mature period, in this way: 

In a specific and concrete sense the idea was to attempt to make visual the 
crowded glamour of a New York restaurant during the noon hour. I am hoping 
that ideas less easy to define have, perhaps, crept in also.-<> 

Here, in a rare admission, Hopper reveals his true interest in the intangible 
issues that so often concerned him— emotions and interpersonal relation- 

Hopper went on to develop the restaurant theme and achieved an im- 
pressive variety of moods through his compositions, light, and the figures he 
depicted. He shared an affinity for this theme with other members of the 

Edward Hopper, Neio Yorli Restaurant, c. 
1922 (see PI. 326). 


Edward Hopper, .tulomat , liy^-] (sec PI. 327). 

Henri circle, especially John Sloan and William Glackens. Of course, the 
French Impressionists, jjarlicularly Degas, Manet, and Renoir, had earlier 
exj)Iored tafc' and restaurant settings. Hopper's restaurants, however, were 
settings lor the introspective figures he favored. In Atdomal of 1927, he 
presented another solitary figure, a young woman contemplating her life 
over a cup of coffee (PI. 327). This sense of preoccupation, and even the 
composition itself, developed much earlier in Hopper's oeuvrc in a work, 
like Soir Bleu. In Automat the woman sits at a round table at the same 
angle as does the clown in Soir Bleu (PI. 37H), and even the empty chair 
recalls the angle of the chair in the earlier painting. Hopper has replaced 
the lanterns with electric lights, but the horizontal and vertical accents are 
quite similar. In Chap Suey (1929) the viewer's attention is held in the 
foregroinid by the two women engrossed in quiet conversation, but the 
entire canvas is remarkably unified by the interplay of bands of light and 
color (PI. 328). Tables for Ladies (1930) presents both the waitress and 
the cashier as if each were lost in a world of private thoughts (PI. 329). 
Hopper paid unusual attention to the items of food lined up in the implied 
plate-glass window that the viewer looks thiough. In the background space, 
in the shadows, a couple conveise, their communication contrasted with 
the solitude of the two females in the foreground. In Sunlight in a Cafe- 
teria (1958) Hopper used the restaurant setting to portray the tensions 
between a man and a woman, who, while sensing each other's presence, 
have not met each other's stolen glances (PI. 330). He gazes in her direc- 
tion, perhaps only pretending to look out of the window to the street be- 
yond, while she lingers on, her coffee finished, shyly pondering the situa- 
tion. The entire scene is animated by the sunlight which, as it falls 
diagonally across the entrance wall, focuses our attention on the drama 


Fig. 52. Edward Hopper, study of illustra- 
tion for Ibsen, c. 1 goo- 1906. Pen and ink 
on paper, 14^/4 x '5% inches. Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art, New York; Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1565.51 


Hopper's penchant for presenting dramatic encounters may have evolved 
from his love of theater and movies. His enthusiasm for theater, as we 
have seen, dated back to his childhood in Nyack and was nurtured by his 
teacher Robert Henri. Even Hopper's fascination with the plays of Henrik 
Ibsen was prohai)ly prompted by Henri, for in Henri's book. The Art Spirit, 
Ib,sen is cited as "siq^reme order in verbal expression." -^ Hopper made 
both an illustration and a cartoon referring to Ibsen, who, like him, was 
concerned with the problems of the individual as a spiritual being (Fig. 
52). 2^ Both the playwright and the painter considered symbolic value within 
a context of seeming realism. Hopper's respect for Ibsen was also expressed 
in the essay he wrote for the catalogue of his exhibition at the Museum of 
Modern Art in 1933. Discussing "definite personalities that remain forever 
modern by the fundamental truth that is in them," he observed: "[Modern 
art] makes Moliere at his greatest as new as Ibsen." -^ 

In Paris Hojiper pursued his love of the theater and wrote home about 
what he saw to his motlier, an equally enthusiastic fan of the stage. He went 
to the opera, saw Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, and he noted: "I saw 

Coquelin in Cyrano de Bergerac— he looked pretty good to me." -+ Hopper 
also enjoyed observing French pageantry for, as we have seen, he recalled 
the carnival of Mi-Careme in his painting Soir Bleu (PL 378). 

When Hopper married in 1924, he found in Jo not only a fellow painter, 
but a former actress who also adored the theater.-"' Their frequent attend- 
ance at plays and movies had two direct effects on his painting: his choice 
of theaters as subject matter and the development of compositions that 
were often influenced by set design, stage lighting, and cinematic devices 
such as cropping and unusual angles of vision. 

Two on the Aisle of 1927, Hopper's first important painting on a theater 
theme, presents an elegantly dressed couple taking their seats near the stage 
before a play begins (PI. 338). They have arrived early; only one other 
woman is visible in an adjacent box and she is reading. We look down at 
this scene as if we too have just arrived and have taken our seats in an 
upper balcony. First Roiv Orchestra (1951) depicts a similar theme, another 
stylishly clad couple seated near the stage before the show begins (PI. 350). 
These treatments recall several of Hopper's earlier magazine illustrations 
of theaters.2^ 

Hopper had once depicted a solitary patron seated in an empty theater 
before what is either a stage or an early movie screen, in a grisaille of about 
1902-4 (PI. 335). His theater or movie-house interiors are distinguished from 
those of other artists— for example, John Sloan's Movies, Five Cents of 
1907— in that Hopper characteristically focused on the theatergoers' con- 
centration, while Sloan was captivated with the lively interaction of the 
audience. Likewise, Hopper's 1936 exterior view of The Circle Theatre 
(PL 339) reveals a nearly deserted street corner, while Sloan's view of the 
Carmine Theater in 1912 represented the more animated scene of "wistfid 
little customers hanging around a small movie show." ^'' 

In The Sheridan Theatre of 1937, Hopper shows a woman resting, lean- 
ing against the balustrade (PL 344). He made numerous preparatory 
sketches while visiting the theater (Pis. 345, 346), paying careful attention 
to details of the architecture which, along with the artificial electric light- 
ing, figures importantly in the painting. Hopper has created drama and 
mood through a vast interior space enhanced by emphatic lighting. 

Although the architecture remains important in Neiv York Movie of 
1939, Hopper's central concern is the figure of the usherette leaning against 
a wall, bored, presumably having seen the movie more times than she cared 
to remember (PL 340). The members of the audience do not draw our 
attention, for they are intently watching the film. On the contrary, it is 
the evocative lighting of this fictive world of dreams (both on the screen 
and in the ornate details of movie-palace architecture itself) which captures 
our imagination. Hopper appears to have drawn inspiration from Degas 
for both his composition and his sense of nocturnal drama. As in Degas' 
Interior of about 1868-69 (which was on view at the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum), 2« Hopper organized his composition with a sharply receding diago- 
nal, thrusting emphatically into space and culminating in an off-center 
vanishing point (Fig. 53). Even the pose of the usherette in Neiu York Movie 
closely resembles the stance of the man in Interior. And the dramatic 



Edward Hopper, Tifo on the Aisle, 1927 
(see PL 338). 

Edward Hopper, First Roic Orchestra. 1951 
(see PI. 350). 

Fig. 53. lulgar Degas, Interior, 18G8-G9. Oil 
oil canvas, 32 x 45 inches. Henry I'. Mcll- 
henny Collection. 

Edward Hopper. Scir York Movie, 1939 (see PL 340). 

''g- 54- Edgar Degas, Musicians of the Or- 
chestra. 1872. Oil on canvas, 27% x 19% 
inches. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut und Stadt- 
ische Galeric, Erankfurt am Main. 

Etiward Hopper, Girlie Slioic, 1941 (see PI. 347)- 

lights and shadows of Hopper's dimly lit movie house also recall the Degas 
picture. Hopper made many sketches for New York Movie at the Strand, 
Palace, Republic, and Globe theaters; for the usherette he had Jo pose in 
the hallway of their apartment (Pis. 3.11-343)- 

One of Hopper's most surprising theatrical paintings. Girlie Show of 
19.J1, depicts a nearly nude burlesque dancer seductively waving her skirt 
behind her as she prances across a floodlit stage above the members of an 
all-male orchestra (PI. 347). Such overt sexuality is unique in Hopper's 
work. Quite possibly, in aligning the eye level with the musicians' heads, 
Hopper was inspired l)y Degas' Musicians of the Orchestra, painted in 1872 

(Fig. 54)- 

The significance of theatrical themes for Hopper is emphasized by Inter- 
mission (1963) and Two Comedians (1965), two of the last four pictures 
that he painted before his death in 1967 (Pis. 352, 353). In Intermission 
Hopper again presented a solitary figure, a seated woman calmly waiting 
for the others to retiun and for the play to continue. Two years later, 
Hopper painted Two Comedians, which Jo described as "a dark stage (and 
what a stage, strong as the deck of a ship) and two small figures out of 
pantomime. Poignant." -^ Jo later confirmed that in the tall male comedian 
and the diminutive female comedian Hopper had represented the two of 
them.""' It was intended as a personal statement, a farewell of sorts, for when 
he showed them gracefully bowing out, he had been ill and would die less 
than two years later. Hopper's conception of a comedian on stage first 
occurred in a drawing he made in 1905— which nevertheless seems espe- 
cially close to his sketches for Two Comedians (Pis. 336, 354, 355). An early 
unpublished illustration showed a couple on stage, as if about to bow, with 
the man holding a palette (Fig. 55). 

Even in his last painting. Hopper appears to liave recalled French art. 
His composition is reminiscent of Daumier's lithograph TJie Recall of the 
Singer, while the costumes suggest those of the Commedia dell'Arte charac- 
ters painted frequently by Watteau (Figs. 56, 34). Hopper appears to liavc 
cast himself and his wife as the young lovers Pierrot and Pierrette. They 
appear as two comedians who, by their last act, have discovered the most 
ironic comedy of all— human existence. Since Hopper chose to portray 
himself as a clown here, it is tempting to speculate that, at the very least, 
he liad also felt some degree of identification with the downcast, bald- 
headed clown in his early painting Soir Bleu (PL 378).3i 

Hopper, it seems clear, saw the theater as a metaphor for life, and him- 
self as a kind of stage director, setting up scenes to paint based on events 
he saw take place around him, casting his characters from types he ob- 
served.^- He had learned to use light as only a master stage craftsman 
could to create drama. Although his dramas were imaginary, his directing 
was inspired. Even in his habit of having Jo pose for all the women he 
painteci, he acted like a director giving a favorite actress many roles to 
play. Jo, who had actually acted in theater, was well prepared for her 

During the 1920s and 1930s we know that Hopper frequently attended 
the theater, for he saved many ticket stubs and carefully recorded the 



Fig. 55. Edward Hopper, A Couple on a 
Stage, c. 1917-20. Wash on illustration 
board, 20 x 15 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1348 

Fig. 56. Honore Daumicr, The Recall of the Singer, 1857. Litho- 
graph, 8 X 10I4 inches. Fhe .Metropolitan .Museum of Art, New 
York; Rogers Fund, 1922. 

Edward Hopper, Two Comedians, 1965 (see PI. 353). 

name of the play on the reverse of each. The 1920s marked the establish- 
ment of mature and original drama in America, with the emergence of a 
group of inspired playwrights, including Eugene O'Neill, Maxwell Ander- 
son, and Elmer Rice. Just as Hopper's painting was coming of age, he was 
partaking of the fruits of the American theater. In the often brilliant sets 
designed for these stage productions, as well as in the content of the plays, 
Hopper found inspiration for his own painting. 

On February 14, 1929, Hopper and his wife saw Elmer Rice's Street 
Scene, which had just opened a month earlier at the Playhouse theater. 
The set for this Pulitzer Prize-winning play was designed by Jo Mielziner, 
whose mother became the Hoppers' neighbor in Truro on Cape Cod when 
they began to spend almost every summer there in 1930. That the Hoppers 
found this set memorable is indicated by a letter Jo wrote to Hopper's sister 
Marion in July of 1936: "My friend, Mrs. Mielziner has invited me to bring 
you there. She's the mother of that Street Scene set we loved so much. Jo 
Mielziner, the artist and Kenneth MacKenna, the actor, are her sons. They 
come sometimes." ^-^ The set, representing the exterior of a two-story apart- 
ment house, with its flat facade extending across the width of the stage, 
may well have inspired Hopper to paint a similar row of New York 
apartments in a shallow space, parallel to the picture plane, extending 
across the face of the canvas (Fig. 57).-^^ Originally Hopper had put a 
figure in one of the windows, as in the set, but he painted it out.-^"' 

Hopper's Early Sunday Morning of 1930 is the quintessential street 
scene (PI. 383). The buildings are viewed at an angle from above as if 
seen from a building across the way. In fact, the Hoppers saw Mielziner's 



Fig. 57. Jo Mielziner, set foi Siiei i Scene Ijy Elmer Rice at the Playhouse Theater, January 
10, ig^g. I'hotograpli. 1 lieater and Miisit Collection, Museiun of tiie City of New ^ ork. 

Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning, 
1930 (see PI. 383). 


Street Scene set from the second balcony, and it is lliis experience that may 
have suggested the slightly elevated vantage j;oint found in Early Sunday 
Mornir^g. In a moic general way, the diamalic lighting in the ])ainling 
also speaks ioi the influence of theater. Hopper's interest in hoth stage 
sets and lighting is confirmed by a comment he made upon seeing some 
foliage illuminated by light coming from a restaurant window at night: 
"Notice liow artificial trees look at night? Trees look like a tiieater at 
night." 36 

Hopper was an especially avid fan of movies. He once reportedly 
told a friend: "When I don't feel in the mood for painting 1 go to the 
movies for a week or tnore. 1 go on a regular movie binge!" ■'' As late as 
1962 Hopper said: "ff anyone wants to see what America is, go and see a 
movie called ''Ihe Savage Eye.' "•'■'* He told an interviewer that he was 
looking forward to seeing Jean-Luc Cioddard's Brealhlcss, a film set in 
Paris, and that he achiiired Frencfi "producers" (he meant directois).'"' 
Hopper often cropped liis pictures very aggressively as though seen through 
a shifting camera lens. Paintings like New York Pavements of about 1924, 
The Barber Shop of 1931, or Office in a Small City of 1953 might well be 
frozen frames from a movie (Pis. 237, i()i, 363). Recent cinematographers 
have drawn inspiration from Hopper's compositions for their own films, 
just as he had once borrowed ideas from earlier movies.'*'^ 


Although it is a rather unusual subject for painting, Hopper, as a part 
of his observations of city life, found the office an intriguing setting (Pis. 
356-365). He had depicted many offices as an illustrator, especially for 
System magazine, and tliese sometimes reveal a close relationship with Iris 
paintings, particularly Office at Night of 1940 (PI. 356, Fig. 31). Hopper 
wrote an explanation of this painting at the request of the Walker Art 
Center, whicli had purcliased it: 

The picture was probably first suggested by many rides on the "L" train in 
New York City after dark and glimpses of office interiors that were so fleeting 
as to leave fresh and vivid impressions on my mind. My aim was to try to give 
the sense of an isolated and lonely office interior rather high in the air, with the 
office furniture which has a very definite meaning for me.'*! 

It appears that Hopper turned for inspiration once again to the work of 
Degas. ^- Degas' 71ie Cotton Exchange, Neiv Orleans of 1S73 is one of the 
few paintings of an office interior and Hopper knew it in repioduction 
(Fig. 58). ^■* In Office at Night Hopper has employed Degas' high, oblique 
view of the floor, tilted out toward the picture plane, and the sharply angled 
wall of glass windows on the left side. Other similarities to Degas are visible 
only in the studies for Office at Night: tlie device of one picture within 
another and the slat-back wooden chair poised with its back to the viewer, 
placed in the lower left corner of the coiriposition (Pis. 357, 358, 359). 
Hopper's figure of the contemplative man at the desk is somewhat rem- 
iniscent of Degas' poi trayal of the old man Michel Mirsson, father-in-law 

lig. 58. Edgar Degas, Tlie Cotton Exchange, Sew Orleans, 1873. Oil 
on canvas, ligi/^ x 3614 inches. Musce dcs Beaux-Arts, Pau. 

Edward Hopper, drawing for painting. Office at Might, 1940 (see 
PI- 359)- 

of Degas' brother Rene, who sits examining a sample of cotton in the fore- 
ground of tlie painting. Botli figures share a sense of concentration ex- 
pressed by the eyes, cast downward. Hopper's withdrawn, meditative man 
is probably in part autobiographical, corresponding to his own quiet 
aloofness. Interestingly, this French Impressionist painting tliat so fascin- 
ated Hopper was an American scene— painted by Degas during a visit 
with his family in America. 

Perhaps what is most intriguing in Hopper's Office at Night is the appar- 
ent psychic tension between the curvaceous woman and the man who ignores 
her. The earliest studies for this work do not reveal her now alluring 
figure. In the ledger where the Hoppers recorded this work, he captioned 
the sketch that designated the painting " 'Confidentially \ours,' Room 
1005,' " and referred to the woman as "Shirley," noting that sfie wore a 
"blue dress, white collar, flesh stockings, black pumps and black hair and 
plenty of lipstick" (Fig. 3). At the end of this explanation, which is really 
only a visual description, Hopper cautioned, "Any more than this, the 
picture will have to tell, but I hope it will not tell any obvious anecdote, 
lor none is intended." Nevertheless, the nighttime drama cannot be over- 
looked. The implied sexual and psychic tension is a source of intrigue 
for the viewer, who becomes a witness to the encounter. 

Hopper's idea of casting the spectator as witness goes back at least to the 
art of the Netherlands with which he was certainly familiar, and it is an 
essential component of Rembrandt's Nightwatch which he admired. ^^ 
When Hopper saw the Nightwatch, it had not yet undergone the restor- 
ation which revealed that it was not really a nocturnal scene. Hopper was 
undoubtedly attracted to the dramatic possibilities inherent in representing 
the contrast of light in a darkened setting. In his explanation of Office 
at Night he detailed his preoccupation with light: 

hdwaid Hopper, Office at Sight, 1940 (see 
PI. 356). 


Ethvaid Hopper, Suitnner Evening, 194'; 
(see PI. 367). 

Ethvaicl Hopper, Summer in the City, 1949 
(see PI. 368). 

There are three .sources of Hght in the picture— indirect Hghting from above, 
the desk n,Si;ht and the light coming through the window. The hght coming 
from outside and lalhng on the wall in back made a difficidi ]}r()blem, as it is 
almost painting white on white, it also made a strong accent of the edge of the 
filing cabinet whidi was difficult to subordinate to the figure of the girl. 

The light thai Hopper painted on the back wall emphasizes the wall's 
angular thrust, which creates a very oddly shaped room. Thus one writer 
has described the observer's sensation in this painting as "being suspended 
in air . . . unable to determine his own position." *^' Here Hopper goes 
beyond Degas: his canvas entices and holds the spectator in a tense, 
intimate, stagelike space by three walls, instead of the two walls in Degas' 
The Cotton Excliangc, New Orleans. Once there, in the arena where the 
drama is taking place, the viewer confronts the players' psychic intensify- 
indeed, is engulfed by a powerful emotional dimension. 


Hopper's interest in emotional interaction— or, more often, the lack of it- 
is evident from his many representations of couples. The theme appears in 
paintings as early as Le Bistro of 1909 and is developed in etchings such as 
Night on the El Train (1918) and Les Deux Pigeons (1920) (PI. 122, Figs. 
50, 4). In Room in New York, an oil painting of 1932, a man reads his 
newspaper, while the woman he is ignoring turns halfheartedly toward 
a piano and picks out a tune (PI. 366). The viewer, looking in through the 
window, has been assigned the role of voyeur. In Summer Evening of 1947 
a young couple, seen in the harsh glare of electric light, appear to be 
engrossed in a tense discussion while uncomfortably leaning against the 
wall of a porcli (PI. 367). 

The sense of estrangement seems to heighten for Hopper over the years. 
His 1949 Slimmer in the City shows a woman, rather restless or depressed, 
with lier arms tensely folded, sitting on the edge of a narrow bed, on which 
a man is asleep— oblivious to lier discomfort (PI. 368). In Seawatchers (1952) 
the couple in tlie sun gaze joylessly at a beautiful stretch of blue sea; their 
boredom and failure to communicate set the somber mood of this painting 
(PI. 369). In Sunliglit on Broivnstones (1956) a younger couple not only 
glance away from each other, but do so with bored and disheartened stares 
(PI. 370). Hopper's concern witli this overriding and pervasive sense of 
malaise was perhaps summarized in his 1959 Excursion into Philosophy 
(PI. 371). In this painting, a man with a troubled expression rests on the 
edge of an unforgivingly hard bed while a woman sleeps, turned away from 
him. He has just put down a book: "He has been reading Plato rather late 
in life," Hopper reportedly remarked. ^*^ Wlien, late in life, Hopper was 
asked if he was a pessimist, he responded: "A pessimist? I guess so. I'm not 
proud of it. At my age don't you get to be?" *'' 


A most unustial theme is Hopper's fascination with military history, especi- 
ally that of the Civil War. The only history paintings he ever executed are 

Dawn Before Gettysburg of 1934 and Light Battery at Gettysburg of 1940 
(Pis. 373, 375). These are most unusual for a painter so involved with the 
present and his own surroundings. Yet Hopper's interest in military sub- 
jects began dining his lioyhood, when he did numerous sketches of soldiers. 
One example, made at the age of fotuteen, both reveals his prodigious 
talent and helps to explain the two later canvases. He also depicted various 
soldiers dining his career as an illustrator and in several of his prints.''* 
Hopper treasured his ten-volume photographic history of the Civil War 
published in 1912, particularly for its Mathew Brady photographs which 
he admired: "There was something about the way he took pictures. Some- 
body said it was the lens they had in those days— not sharp. But anyway 
the pictures aren't cluttered up with detail; you just get what is important. 
Very simplified." *^ It is not surprising that Brady's photographs inspired 
Dawn Before Gettysburg and Light Battery at Gettysburg. Most of the 
soldiers in Dawn Before Gettysburg appear tired and bored as they wait, 
recalling the people who sit and wait in so many of Hopper's other paint- 



Edward Hopper, Sunlight on Brownstones, 
1956 (see PI. 370). 


Many of Hopper's paintings also represent a specific time of day, empha- 
sizing a mood through the varying effects of light. Frequently, he actually 
entitled works with an hour or time of day. Hopper seems to have had very 
definite associations with the various times of day he chose. One could say 
that, at least on a subconscious level, Hopper ascribed symbolic content to 
evening, night, morning, and midday— all of which he painted. This inter- 
pretation is further supported by his fondness for certain poems about 
times of the day. On several occasions, for example. Hopper quoted in 
French from Paul Verlaine's poem, "La lune blanche," on evening: 

Un vaste et tendre 


Semble descendre 

Du firmament 

Que I'astre irise 

Cast I'heure 

Hopper also liked to quote from Goethe's "W^anderer's Nightsong," which 
he described as "an extraordinary visual picture": 

Over all the hills is quiet 

Over all the dells you can hardly hear a sound 

All the birds are quiet in the woods 

Soon you will rest too.^^ 

Hopper particularly admired Robert Frost and cited more than once 
Frost's poem "Come In," which creates such an evocative picture of dusk."'- 

In his own depictions of evening. Hopper often conveyed something of 
a sense of mystery, of the enchantment which Verlaine, Goethe, and Frost 
associated with the twilight hour. This is especially evident in Soir Bleu of 

Edward Hopper. Excursion into Philosoplix. 
'959 (see PI. 371). 


« b: ii 

r.duaid Hopper, A';i,'/)/ \\ iiidoxi's. i()U'H (sec 
I'l. 38,). 






Edward Hopper, Xighthau'hs 

i94:> (sec IM. 

about Hji.}. Ra/lroiul Sunset of uj-'cj, House at Dusk and SJiakcspcare at 
Dusk, bolli ot i()35, ami C«pc' Cor/ Ei'cning of 1939 (Pis. 378, 382, 384, ;^8(), 
418). In Cape Cod Evening, as in Roi)crl Frost's poetry, the woods arc 
"lovely, dark and deep " and enigmatic; the waning simlight of evening 
contrasts sharply with the dense woods where, in the shadows, nightfall has 
already arrived."'^ Hopper's comment on the painting confirms that it was 
in fact a personal conceptualization which, like the poems he loved, evoked 
his own reflections on evening: 

It is no exact transcription of a place but pieced together from sketches and 
mental impressions of things in the vicinity. The gro\e of locust trees was done 
from sketches of trees nearby. The doorway of the house comes from Orleans 
about twenty miles from here. The figures were done almost entirely without 
models, and the dry, blowing grass can be seen from my studio window in late 
summer or autumn . . . The dog is listening to something, probably a whip 
poorwill or some evening sound. 5* 

Hopper's original impetus toward suggestive content, at least regarding 
times of the day, may have begun under the impact of French Symbolist 
poetry which, as we have seeir, he first came to know as a sttident in the 
Henri class."'-' Hopper's interest in Symbolist literature was shared by others 
in the Henri coterie, including John Sloan. ^^ 'YIiq Symbolists were still 
quite in fashion when Hopper first arrived in Paris in 1906. He probably 
read about thein in contemporary magazines and he might have known 
The Symbolist Move/nent in Literature by Arthur Symons, the first book 
in English to analyze these writers, which was published in 1899 and 
appeared in its first revised edition in 1908.''" As late as 1951, Hopper gave 
Jo a voluirie of jjoetry by Arthur Rimbaud for Christmas, complete with 
his own inscription to her in French. ^s 

In a painting like Soir Bleu, Hopper recalled Symbolist poems in spirit 
if not with specific references. F"or example, one such poem, "Sensation" by 
Rimbaud, begins "Pai les soirs bleus d'c-te . . ." ("In the blue summer 
evenings . . .") and Hopper's painting seems to embody its mood, even to 
the silent people staring with apparently blank minds: "}e ne parlerai pas, je 
ne penserai rien . . ." ("I will not speak, I will have no thoughts").^" 
Likewise, it is comprehensible that the mysterious, intoxicating sky of 
Railroad Sunset was conceived by an artist who had savored poems like 
Charles Baudelaire's "Harmonie du Soir," which reads: "The sky, like an 
altar, is sad and magnificent; drowning in curdled blood, the stin sinks 
lower. . . ." ^^ 

Hopper was equally fascinated with the night, which he seems to have 
equated with both eros and anxiety in works ranging from his 1918 
etching Night on the El Train to his later oil paintings— A'/g/;/ Windows, 
Office at Night, Night hawks (Pis. 381, 356, 386, Fig. 50). The initial impulse 
for Night IVindoivs as a subject was clearly the 1910 etching of the same 
title by John Sloan. "^ As in Sloan's etching. Hopper turns the viewer into 
a voyeur, but his composition is more subtle and more sensual. Hopper's 
focus is closer, more intimate. Tire nude female, seen from behind, is 
unaware of being watched. At the same time, a curtain blowing out of the 

window hints at the restlessness one senses in his 1921 etching Evening 
Wind (Fig. 38) and entices the spectator-voyeur to come in. Hopper said: 
"Night hawks seems to be the way I think of a night street. I didn't see it 
as particiihirh loneh. I simplified tlie scene a great deal and made the 
restaurant bigger. Unconsciou,sIy, probably, I was painting the loneliness 
of a large city." ''- The setting of Nighthaivks, which was "suggested by a 
-restaurant on Green\\ich Avenue where two streets meet," "•'' expresses the 
vulnerability of these people out alone in the disquieting night. The 
couple whose hands almost touch accentuate the isolation of the solitary 
diner across the counter: a juxtaposition of eros and the loneliness .of night. 

A sense of longing appears to be Hopper's major association with 
morning. This seems especially apparent in works like Eleven A.M. of 1926, 
where a nude woman sits in a chair looking out of the window, in Morning 
in a City of 1944, where a standing nude woman gazes out of a window, 
and in Cape Cod Morning of 1950, where a woman in a red dress leans out 
to observe the world from her bay window (Pis. 393, 394, 399). In Five A.M. 
of 1937 and Seven A.M. of 1948, however, Hopper depicted deserted scenes 
(Pis. 385, 388), which embodied his thoughts and feelings beyond observed 

Seven A.M. presents a storefront where there is no early morning activity, 
juxtaposed with the menacing but beckoning woods beyond. Here, the 
woods may have suggested to Hopper an escape from the day's trials— his 
longed-for solitude, lliis feeling contrasts sharply with the positive sense 
of expectation in the full midday sunlight that illuminates High Noon 
of 1949 (PL 398). 



Edward Hopper, Seven A.M., 1948 (sec I'l 


Hopper's many simimers spent in South Truro on Cape Cod enabled him to 
acquire an intimate knowledge of the area. He painted both the simple 
buildings, the roads, and the natiaal forms of the landscape. Focusing on 
the effect of sunlight, he conveyed the drama of the forms he observed and 
saved them from banality. Among his initial Cape Cod subjects were South 
Truro Church, Corn Hill, Hills, South Truro, all of 1930, the first summer 
spent on the Cape (Pis. 404, 405, 407). For the first four summers, the 
Hoppers rented A. B. Cobb's house, which they called "Bird Cage Cottage" 
because rain, wind, and animals entered it with equal freedom. After 
an especially rainy summer in 1933 they built their own home with space 
enough to enable them to paint indoors. 

Edward Hopper, Cape Cod, .Massachusetts, 
c. 1933- 


On the Cape, Hopper indulged his love of sunlight in an area where the 
summer light is especially intense. Yet his interest in painting sunlight 
dates back to his acquaintance with Impressionist painting in Paris— to the 
1907 Trees in Sunlight, Fare du Saint Cloud (PI. 423). His mature attempts 
at painting sunlight resulted in Rooms by the Sea (1951) and Sun in an 
Empty Room (1963), two intense paintings (Pis. 424, 429). Rooms by the Sea 


was actually inspired by the spectacular view from the Hoppers' house on 
the (^apc down over the dunes to the vast stretch of sea beyond. 
Hopper claimed his Second Story Sunlight of i960 was only 

an attempt to paint sunlight as white with almost no yellow pigment in the 
white. Any psydiological idea will ha\e to lie supplied l)y the viewer. . . . There 
is a sort of elation al)om siuilight on the upper part of a house. You know, 
there are many thouglus, many impulses that go into a picture. *5^ 

Edward Hopper. Second Story Si/;?//^/;/, 
i960 (see PI. 425). 

Ahlioiigh he occasionally denied the existence of meaning in his paintings, 
Hopper once sent Lloyd Cioodrich a letter he received from the critic 
James Thomas Flexner praising Second Story Sunlight and interpreting it 
as an allegory of "winter and spring, life and death." *"■ Hopper noted of 
the letter: "... I thought it would interest you. Since I took the trouble ol 
having a photostat made of it, it may indicate that I am not as modest 
as I am said to be." *'" 

While Hopper was in no sense a narrative painter and had long since 
transcended his own work in ilhrstralion. his canvases are much more than 
mere representations of reality— paintings which do not intend to be just 
descriptive or topical, but aspire to the universal. By refusing to be narra- 
tive and aiming only at suggestive symbolic content. Hopper at his best 
created paintings which express the psychological pulse of their time and 
yet speak for all time. 


g|MW^gWMMI|WtWWlB<l*»»*w »<r w mn^ifc ^^p*** 

Edward Hopper at the InstitiUe of .Arts and Letters. 1961. Photograph by Sidney Waintrob. 
Budd Studio. 



1. Both quotes appear in Brian O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward 
Hopper" Art in America, 52 (December 1964), pp. 42 and 

2. Brian O'Doherty, "The Hopper Bequest at the Whitney," 
Art in America, 59 (September-October 1971), pp. 68-69. 
Other recent estimates have concurred: John I. H. Baur 
(quoted in Grace Glueck, "Art Is Left by Hopper to the 
Whitney," New York Times, 19 March 1971) described 
Hopper as "the foremost reahst in 20th-century art"; John 
Perreault ("Hopper: Relentless realism, American light," 
Village Voice, 23 September 1971) said: "Edward Hopper 
was and is one of our greatest American painters"; Hilton 
Kramer ("Art: Whitney Shows Items from Hopper Bequest," 
New York Times, 11 September 1971) declared that Hopper 
had a "firm position as the leading realist painter of his 
generation"; cf. also Barbara Rose, "Edward Hopper: 
Greatest American Realist of the 20th Century," Vogue, 
1 September 1971, p. 282. 

3. Carl Baldwin, "Realism: The American Mainstream," 
Realites, April 1973, p. 117. 

4. See Gail Levin, "Edward Hopper, Francophile," Arts 
Magazine, 53 (June 1979), pp. 114-21 and Gail Levin, 
Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints (New York: W. W. 
Norton & Company in association with the Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art, 1979), pp. 15-19 and 27-28. 

5. Edward Hopper, "John Sloan and the Philadelphians," 
The Arts, 11 (April 1927), p. 174. 

6. William Innes Homer with the assistance of Violet Organ, 
Robert Henri and His Circle (Ithaca: Cornell University 
Press, 1969), p. 131. Homer noted that it was probably 
Henri who was quoted in the New York Sun, 15 May 1907, 
as saying of The Eight that "all are men who stand for the 
American idea." For further details on the "Exhibition of 
Paintings by Arthur B. Davies, William J. Glackens, 
Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice 
Prendergast, Everett Shinn, John Sloan" from February 
3-15, 1908 at the Macbeth Galleries, see Bennard B. Perl- 
man, The Immortal Eight (Westport, Connecticut: North 
Light Publishers, 1979). 

7. Homer, Robert Henri, pp. 136 and 139. Giles Edgerton 
[Mary Fanton Roberts], "The Younger .\merican Painters: 
Are They Creating a National Art?" Crajtsman, 13 (Febru- 
ary 1908), pp. 523, 524, 531. 

8. "One Step Nearer to a National Art," Neiu York American, 
10 March 1908. This review was evidently written by Guy 
P^ne du Bois, the paper's critic, who omitted his own 
name from the list of artists. The exhibition was entitled 
"Exhiljition of Paintings and Drawings by Contemporary 

9. "Shows and Sales. Mr. Bellows Paints Cross-Eyed Boy," 
New York Herald, 13 February 1915. 

10. "Strong Man at the MacDowell" and "Exhibit at Mac- 
Dowell Club," unidentified newspaper clippings saved by 

11. For Hartley's interest in European art, see Gail Levin, 
"Marsden Hartley, Kandinsky, and Der Blaue Rciter," 
Arts Magazine, 52 (November 1977). pp. 156-60 and Gail 
Levin, "Marsden Hartley and the European Avant-}farde," 
Arts Magazine, 54 (September 1979). pp. 158-63. Critics 
in the Sticglitz circle who called for a more American 
art include Paul Rosenfeld and Waldo Frank. Rosenfeld, 
for example, in Port of New York (Urbana: University of 
Illinois Press, 1961), pp. 99-100, insisted "Hartley will 
ha\e to go back to Maine ... to this soil . . . his own 
people. . . ." 

12. Marsden Hartley, "Red Man Ceremonials: An American 
Plea for American Esthetics," Art and Archaeology, 9 
(January 1920), p. 14. 

13. Hopper, "John Sloan," pp. 177-78. 

14. ".\merica Today," Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 7 March 1926, 
p. E7. 

15. Lloyd Goodrich, "The Paintings of Edward Hopper," 
The Arts, 2 (March 1927), p. 136. 

16. Peyton Boswell, Sr., in The Americana Annual, ig^2 (New 
V'ork: Americana Corporation, 1932), p. 72; Thomas 
Craven, Modern Art. The Men. The Movement. The 
Meaning (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1934). 

17. Guy P^ne du Bois, "The American Paintings of Edward 
Ho]:)per," Creative Art, 8 (March 1931) p. 187. 

18. Ibid., p. 191 

19. Mary Morsell, "Hopper Exhii^ition Clarifies a Phase of 
American Art." The Art News, 32 (4 November 1933). 
p. 12. 

20. Exhibition of Paintings Drawings and Etchings, Whitney 
Studio Club, 147 West Fourth Street, January 14-28, 1920. 
Hopper exhibited sixteen paintings of which eleven were 
scenes of Paris. 

21. Helen Appleton Read, "Racial Quality of Hopper Pic- 
tures at Modern Museum Agrees With Nationalistic 
Mood," Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 November 1933, p. 12B-C. 

22. "Trial by Jury," The Bulletin Index, 28 September 1939. 

23. Edward Alden Jewell, "Early Art Shown of Edward Hop- 
per," New York Sun, 11 January 1941. 

24. Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 72. 

25. This and tlie following Cjuote are from William Johnson's 
unpulilished account ol his interview with Edward Hop- 
per, 30 October 1956. Hopper recounted that his grand- 
father had been killed in a "runaway" accident when Gar- 
rett Hopper was a small boy, forcing him to go to work at an 
early age to help support his mother. Hopper said of his 
father: "He never should have been a merchant." 

26. Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 72. 

27. Edward Hopper to Charles H. Sawyer, letter of 29 
October 1939. Quoted in Lloyd Goodrich, Edward Hopper 
(New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971), p. 164. Hopper also 
indicated his awareness of modern psychology in a remark 
he made about the short stories of Thomas Mann: "Rough 
going. Well depressing. Freudian. A great writer of fiction" 
(O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 73). 

28. Ibid., p. 79. 

29. Ibid., p. 72. 







Edward Hopper, "Notes on Painting," in Alfred H. Ban. 
Jr., Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition (New York: 
The Museum of Modern Art, 1933), p. 17. 
Quoted in Cioodrich. Edtvard Hopper, p. 152. 
Edward Hopper, "Statements by Four Artists," Reality, 
1 (Spring 1953), p. 8. 

Quoted in O'Doherty, 'Tortrait: Edward Hopper," p. 72. 
Several critics originally saw humor in Hopper's 1926 
painting Sunday: "Edward Hopper's 'Sunday' shows the 
artist at home in a medium less frequently essayed by 
him. . . . Out of such commonplaceness has Hopper cre- 
ated beauty as well as injected humor and an astute 
characterization of place and type" ("America Today," 
Brooklyn Daily Eagle); "Into the conventional ugly set- 
ting, Mr. Hopper manages to insert a sardonic humor 
without the slightest vestige of caricature that gives to his 
pictures a peculiarly individual appeal" ("A Limited Group 
of Americans of To-day," unidentified clipping of 28 
February 1926). 

Author's interview with Florence Blauvelt, childhood ac- 
cjuaintance of Edward Hopjier, 7 May 1979. 
Rockwell Kent, It's Me O Lord: The Autobiography of 
Rockwell Kent (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1955), p- 

Walter Tittle, "The Pursuit of Happiness" (unpublished 
autobiography, written before 1949), Wittenberg Univer- 
sity Library, Springfield, Ohio. 

Edward Hopper to Marion Hopper, 24 August 1956. The 
story was "The Silent Witness," Time, 68 (24 December 
1956), cover, pp. 28, 37-39. Hopper was dismayed by the 
content, which he felt portrayed him inaccurately as a 
folksy, unsophisticated man who cracked his knuckles. 
Quoted in Katharine Kuh, The Artist's Voice. Talks zinth 
Seventeen Artists (New York: Harper &: Row, 1962), p. 131. 


1. "Edward Hopper Objects" (letter from Hopper to the edi- 
tor, Nathaniel Pousette-Dart), The Art of Today, 6 (Feb- 
ruary 1935), p. 11. 

2. Author's interview with Berta Ward, childhood friend of 
Hopper's sister Marion. 

3. Hopper owned, for example, Edmund Ollier's Master- 
pieces from the Works of Gustave Dorc (New York: Cas- 

sell Publishing Co., 


4. Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 17. Of his sailboat, he re- 
marked: "It wasn't very good. I had put the centreboard 
well too far aft and she wouldn't sail upwind very well" 
(William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 4). 

5. Bennard Perlman, unpublished interview with Edward 
Hopper, 3 June 1962. 

6. Lolan C. Read, Jr., "The New York School of Art," The 
Sketch Book, 3 (April 1904), p. 219. 

7. Ibid., p. 220. 

8. Quoted in 'Trom a Talk by William M. Chase with 
Benjamin Northrop of the Mail and Express," Art Ama- 
teur, Fei>ruary 1894, p. 77. 








Frances Laudcrbach, "Notes from talks by \V''illiam M. 32. 

Chase," The American Magazine of Art, September 1917, 
p. 434. 33- 

For information on Chase's teaching and taste, see Ronald 34- 
G. Pisano, William Merritt Chase. In the Company of 35- 

Friends (Southampton, New York: The Parrish Art Mu- 36. 
seum, 1979). p. 13. Chase, who himself owned a painting 
by Manet, had, as early as 1881, recommended that the 37- 

American collector Erwin Da\ is acquire Manet's Boy With 
a Sivord and Womati With a Parrot; Davis subsequently 38. 

donated these to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, making 
it the first museum in America to own Manet's work. 39- 

It would have been wasteful to paint an illustration in 
color if it was to be reproduced in black and white. He 
chose Don (Quixote as a theme for one such grisaille (PI. 
74). He was particularly fond of Cervantes' tale, for he 
made several early sketches of Don Quixote and Sancho 
Panza and produced a finished illustration complete with 40. 

caption. Years later, after he took up printmaking, he 
executed an etching of the subject. 41. 

Hopper. "John Sloan," pp. 174-75. 

Ibid., p. 176; Edward Hopper, transcript of taped inter- 42. 
view with Arlene Jacobwitz at the Brooklyn Museum, 29 
April 1966. 43. 

Kent, Autobiography . p. 84. 

Ibid., p. 81. 44. 

Hopper, "Notes on Painting," p. 17. 

Robert Henri, "A Practical Talk to Those Who Study 
Art," Tlie Philadelphia Press, 12 May 1901, reprinted in 
Robert Henri, The Art Spirit, ed. Margery Ryerson (Phila- 
delphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1923), pp. 73-82, as "An 45. 
Address to the Students of the School of Design for 
Women, Philadelphia." 

Ibid., pp. 274-75. 46. 

Kent, Autobiography, p. 91. 

Guy Pene du Bois, Artists Say the Silliest Things (New 
York: .American .Artist Group, Inc., and Duell, Sloan, and 
Pearce, Inc., 1940), p. 88. 47. 

Hopper, "John Sloan," p. 178. 

Keiu, Autobiography, p. 83. 48. 

Hopper taught the Satinday classes along with Douglas 
John Connah. the head of the entire school, and W. T. 49. 

The Sketch Book, 3 (April 1904), p. 233. The faculty 
representative for the magazine was Susan F. Bissell. 
Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 73. 
Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter ot 30 
October 1906. 50. 

Ibid. 51- 

Edward Hopper to his motiier, inipulilished letter of 23 52- 

November 1906. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 30 
October 1906. 

Edward Hopper to his sister, unpul^lished letter of 29 
November 1906. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 8 
December 1906. 53. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, mipublishetl letter of 26 
May 1907. 

Barr, Edieard Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition, p. 10. 
O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 73. 
William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 7. 
Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letters of 8 
December 1906 and 6 January 1907. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 8 
December 1906. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 26 
May 1907. 

Many artists before Hopper had painted at Saint-Cloud. 
Dining the pre\ious aiuumn, the Russian painter W'assily 
Kandinsky, then also living in Paris, painted Im Park 
von Saint Cloud (1906; Stadtische Gakrie im Lenbachhaus, 
Munich), focusing his attention on the thick growths of 
trees there and their autumn colors. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 4 
July 1907. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, luipublishcd letter of 18 
July 1907. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpuljlished letter of 27 
July 1907. 

See the preceding chapter, "The Identity of the .Artist," 
note 8. 

George Bellows. howe\er. was singled out for praise when 
a writer for the Evening .Mail dul^bed his painting Jimmy 
Flnnnigan the "pearl of the gutter"; quoted in Charles H. 
Morgan, George Bellows: Painter of America (New York: 
Reynal and Company, 1965), p. 82. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letters of 29 
May 1909. and 7 Jiuie 1909. Edward Hopper to his l.ithcr. 
unpublished letter of 18 June 1909. 

Edward Hopper to his mother, luipublislied letter of 18 
May 1909. The "fellows" might ha\e been Patrick Henry 
Bruce, \Valter Pach, or other classmates from the New 
York School of Art. 

Edward Hopper to his sister, unpublished letter of 9 June 

Du Bois. "The .American Paintings of Edward Hopper." 
p. 191. 

Of the three issues, one was devoted to the cartoons of 
.Albert Guillaume. and two to the satirical illustrations 
of Jean-Louis Forain: Les Maitres Humoristes. .4. Guil- 
laume (Paris: Socictc d'Edition et de Publications, Octo- 
ber, 1908); ibid., JeanT.ouis Forain. January and Novem- 
ber 1908). 

Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 73. 
Quoted in Kuh, The Artist's Voice, p. 135. 
"Around the Galleries," New York Sun, 7 April 1910; 
"Panic Averted in .Art Show Crowd," New York Mail ir 
Express, 2 .April 1910. Julius Golz (1878-19??) is an 
example of one of Hopper's classmates who, initially more 
successful than Hopper, faded into obscurity. In 1909 Golz 
taught a summer art class with Rockwell Kent on Monhe- 
gan Island. 
"Paintings in Oil and Pastel by James ,A. McNeill \Vhist- 

ler," The IMeiropolitaii Museum of Art, New York, Marcli 
15-May 31, 1910. For a discussion of Tonalism, "a style 
of intimacy and expressiveness, interpreting very s]jc(ific 
themes in Hmited color scales and employing delicate 
effects of light to create vague, suggestive moods," see fiS. 

Wanda M. Corn, The Color of Mood: American Tonalism 
jSijo-ipio (San Francisco: M. H. De Young Memorial Mu- 
seum and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 
1972), p. 4 and cf. pp. 9-11. 

54. Milton ^V. Brown, The Story of the Armory Shoiu (New 
York: The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1903), p. 65. 

55. Hopper had actually listed the price as $300, l)ut agreed 
to accept Thomas F. Victor's offer of ^250 as he was very 
eager to sell his painting. A letter of 24 March 1913, from 
Hopper to Walt Kuhn, one of the exhibition's organizers, 
documents this decision. (The letter is preserved in the 69. 
Elmer L. MacRae Papers, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden. Washington, D. C.) 

5(). Quoted in Suzanne Burrey, "Edward Hopper: Tlie Empty- 
ing Spaces," Arts Digest, 1 April 1955, pp. 9 and 33. 

57. Tittle, "The Pursuit of Happiness," chap. 22, p. 2. The 7°. 
existence of French themes executed on American illustra- 
tion board probably indicates the accuracy of Tittle's 
account. 7i- 

58. "Strong Man at the MacDowell " and "Exhibit at Mac- 
Dowell Club," iniidentihed newspaper clippings saved by 72- 
Hopper. See p. 5 for other reviews of this exhibition. 

59. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 1 1 73- 
May 1907. 

60. Elizabeth Cornell Benton, sister of the artist Joseph Cornell, 74- 
was in Hopper's class along with her cousin Janet Voorhis. 
Letter from Mrs. Benton to the author, 29 April 1979; re- 
lated information also provided Ijy Linda Roscoe Harti- 

gan, National Collection of Fine .\rts, letter to the author, 

24 April 1979. 75- 

61. "Walkowitz and Hopper," Arts and Decoration . (i (Febru- 7*^- 
ary 1916), pp. 190-91. 

62. Kent, Autobiography, p. 116. ft was Henri who had rec- 
ommended Monhegan to Kent. 

63. Ibid., p. 120. 

64. Edward Hopper, quoted in "Maker of Poster Smash the 
Hun is Visitor here," unidentified clipping from [Rock- 
land?] Maine newspaper, summer 1918. 

65. Barr, Ediuard Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition, p. 11. 

66. Edward Hopper, cjuoted in "True American .Art Sought 
in Posters," New York Sun, undated clipping of 1918 
(before July 25). For additional discussion of this poster, 

see Gail Levin, Edward Hopper as Illustrator (New York: 81. 

W. W. Norton &: Company in association with the Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 1979), pp. 24-25. 

67. Ibid. "The modern French poster stands at almost opposite 

poles with the German. It has more of real character, a 82. 

quality that can in nowise be faked by a calculating use ol 
design and color, but must be felt. It has the surprise that 83. 

comes through an ever fresh sight of the object to be 
drawn, be it soldier, rifle or a line of barbed wire defense. 84. 



While it has not ])eihaps the carrying power of the Ger- 
man work it has more intimacy of drawing. The war 
posters of the French have been unequalled in (ire and 

Edward Hopper, quoted in Pete Shea, "Poster Model. 
Joins Navy," Neiu York Sun, undated clipping of 1918: 
"In my poster I tried to show the real menace to this 
country, as symbolized by the bloody German bayonets. 
The resistance of the worker to that menace is evident, I 
think, in his pose and the design. The way the worker's 
feet are spread out has a meaning to me of a certain 
solidity and force. They are set there for all time against 
this threatened invasion. The work to whidi the special 
appeal is directed is typified by a silhouette of a shipyard, 
smokestack and smoke." 

Barr, Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition, p. 11. 
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney had originally held informal 
exhibitions of works by fellow artists in her studio in Mac- 
Doiigal Alley from 1907 on. She began the Whitney Studio 
at 9 West Eighth Street in 1914. 

Guy Pcne du Bois in Juliana Force and American Art: A 
Memorial Exhibition (New York: Whitney Museum of 
American Art, 1949), p. 44. 

"Random Impressions in Current Exhibitions," New York 
Tribune, 25 January 1920, p. 5. 

"Exhibitions for the Holidays," New York Times Maga- 
zine, 4 December 1921, p. 5. 

See Levin, Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints, pp. 

For example, in "The Hundred Dollar Holiday Exhibi- 
tion" at the New Gallery, 600 Madison Avenue, December 
12, 1922-January 2, 1923. The catalogue for this exhibition 
stated: "The watercolors of Nivison add a gay note of 

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 80. 
Josephine Verstille Nivison Hopper, interviewed with 
Edward Hopper by Arlene Jacobwitz at the Brooklyn Mu- 
seum, 29 April 1966, transcript of tape. To Jo's annoyance, 
Hopper did not recall the circumstances of his entry in 
the exhibition at the time this interview took place. 

Royal Cortissoz, "A Fine Collection at The Brooklyn 
Museum," New York Tribune, 25 November 1923, p. 8. 
Helen Appleton Read, "Brooklyn Museum Emphasizes 
New Talent in Initial Exhibition," Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 
18 November 1923, p. 2B. 

Henry McBridc, "Edward Hopper's Water Colors Prove 
Interesting— Also Sell," The Sun, 25 October 1924, p. 4: 
"Art: Exhibition of Water-colors," Neiu York Times, 19 
October 1924, section 10, p. 13. 

Edward Hopper in conversation with Lloyd Goodrich, 21 
April 1947. as recorded in Goodrich's notes. 
Edward Hopper in conversation with Lloyd Cioodrich. 
spring 1964, as recorded in Goodricli's notes. 
Jo gave him Paul Jamot's Degas (Paris: Editions dc la 

Gazette cles Beaux-Arts, 1924), a l)eautiful l)ook. filled with 
illustrations. Cf. also the following chapter, "Themes," 
note 28. 


1 1. 


Edward Hopper to Lloyd Goodrich, unpublished letter ol 
4 September 1944. 

Edward Hopper to Samuel Golden, unpublished letter of 
2 November 1945, referring to the use of this painting as 
the frontispiece of the monograph Edward Hopper (New 
York: American Artists Group, Inc., 1945). 
William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 17. 
Quoted in Archer Winsten, "Wake of the News: Washing- 
ton Square North Boasts Strangers Worth Talking To," 
New York Post, 26 November 1935. 

"Pretty Penny," located just up the road from his boyhood 
home in Nyack, was owned by Helen Hayes and her 
husband Charles MacArthur. 

Lloyd Goodrich noted that High Noon of 1949 "is almost 
pure geometry." When he told Hopper that he had shown 
High Noon together with a painting by Piet Mondrian 
in a lecture. Hopper's only comment was "You kill me." 
Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 149. 

Edward Hopper to Guy Pene du Bois, unpublished letter 
of 2 August 1953. 

"Edward Hopper Objects," Edward Hopper to the editor. 
Nathaniel Pousette-Dart, published in Tlw Art of Today, 6 
(February 1935), p. 11. 

Edward Hopper to Charles H. Sawyer, 29 October 1939, 
quoted in full in Goodrich, Edward Hopper, pp. 163-64. 
Sawyer was then Director of the Addison Gallery of Ameri- 
can Art, Andover, Massachusetts, which organized an 
exhibition entitled "The Plan of A Painting: An Inter- 
pretive Study of Manhattan Bridge Loop by Edward Hop- 
per," January 13-March 10, 1940. 

Kuh, The Artist's Voice, p. 131. Hopper also remarked: 
"These houses are gone now." 
Ibid., p. 134. 

See Levin, Edward Hopper as Illustrator, pp. 40-42 and 
Levin, Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints, pp. 22-23 
and Pis. 49, 74, 62, 87, 100, 103. 
Quoted in Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 106. 
Hopper always preferred trains to airplanes because, he 
admitted, "I'm afraid to die"; typescript of tekn isioii in- 
terview with Edward and Jo Hopper by Brian O'Doherty, 
Boston, 1961. 

Quoted in William C. Seitz, Edward Hopper in Sao Paulo 
g (VV^ashington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1969), p. 22. 
Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 27 
July 1925, from Santa Fe, New Mexico. 
Edward Hopper to Guy Pene du Bois, unpul^lished letter 
of 2 August 1953. 

See Levin, Edward Hopper as Illustrator, Pis. 14, 336, 355, 
35"' 358. 453, as examples of restaurant illustrations and 

Le\in, Edivard Hopper: The Complete Prints, PI. 48, for 
an etching of another cafe scene. 

20. Edward Hopper to Maynard Walker, unpublished letter 
of 9 January 1937. 

21. Henri, The Art Spirit, p. 143. 

22. See Levin, Edward Hopper as Illustrator, PI. 504. This 
concern appears in the work of Ibsen in his last six plays: 
The Lady from the Sea, Hedda Gabler, The Master 
Builder, Little Eyolf, John Gabriel Rorkman, and When 
We Dead Awaken. Hopper attended a performance of 
The Master Builder in New York on December 15, 1925: 
the ticket stub was among those saved by him. 

23. Hopper, "Notes on Painting," p. 18. 

24. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letters of 17 
April 1907 and 6 January 1907. In this latter letter. Hop- 
per wrote that the Opera and the Theatre Odeon were 
both "supported by the government as is also the Theatre 

25. Josephine Nivison had acted in New York with the 
Washington Square Players. 

26. See Levin, Edward Hopper as Illustrator, Pis. 341, 350, 
99a, 316, 485, 504. 

27. David W. Scott, John Sloan i8ji-igyi: His Life and 
Paintings (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art. 
1971), p. 117, PI. 73. Plate 57, p. 102, reproduces Sloan's 
Movies, Five Cents. 

28. Hopper probably saw Degas' Interior at the Metropolitan 
Museum, where it was on extended loan from the Whitte- 
more collection from 1921 to 1935. This painting is repro- 
duced in Jamot, Degas, inscribed "for Edward Hopper from 
Jo" and given to Hopper in 1924, the year of their marriage. 
The Hoppers also owned the catalogue of a Degas exhi- 
bition at the Durand-Ruel Galleries in New York in 1928. 

29. Jo Hopper to Margaret McKellar, unpublished letter of 
14 November 1965. 

30. Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 154. 

31. For Hopper's anxiety about his progressive baldness, see 
the unpublished letter of 27 April 1907 to his mother. 
Hopper, who was already ijalding at the time he was in 
Paris, was so self-conscious during these years that he 
always wore a hat when photographed. From Paris he 
wrote to his mother to report that his hair had "ceased to 
fall out in such large quantities." 

32. Few critics have commented in any depth on the relation- 
ship of Hopper's art to theater. By far the most incisive 
is Bryan Robertson, "Hopper's Theater," Neiv York Re- 
view of Books, 17 (16 December 1971), in a review of 
Goodrich, Edward Hopper. Robertson touched briefly but 
brilliantly on a numljer of crucial points, but did not 
explore them fully. 

33. Jo Hopper to Marion Hopper, unpublished letter of 5 
July 1936. 

34. Norma Springford, Professor of Theatre Arts at Concordia 
University, Montreal, suggested this influence to Noreen 
Corrigan, who sent me her insightful paper on Edward 
Hopper. Springford made the remarkable deduction with- 



out the kiiowlcclt^c iIkii Hopper attended Sircct Scene or 
of Jo's letter to Marion al)oiU the set. 

35. O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 78. 

36. Ibid., p. 80. 

37. Ricliard Lahey Papers, ".\rtists 1 Have Known," Archives 
of American Art, roll 378, frames 919-1053. Lahey (1927- 
61), a painter and friend of Hopper's, reported this con- 
versation in his memoirs as having taken place in front of 
the original Whitney Museum on Eighth Street. 
O'Doherty. "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 76. T}ie Savage 
Eye (i960) was directed by Ben Maddow, Sidney Meyers, and 
Joseph Strick. 

O'Doherty, tclexised inter\iew (see above, note 15). 
For example. Hopjjer's Ofjue in a Small C.ily of 1953 re- 
called the opening scene from Dodsiuorlh, a film by William 
Wyler of 1936. The film Days of Heaven (1978) recalled 
Hopper's House by llie Railroad in its opening setting; the 
house in .Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (i960) also resembled 
the one in this painting. 

41. Edward Hopper, "Office at Night," explanatory statement 
accompanying letter of 25 August 1948, to Norman A. 
Geske, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. For 
a fuller discussion of this painting, see Gail Levin. "Ed- 
ward Hopper's 'Office at Night,' " Arts Magazine. 52 
(January 1978), pp. 134-37. The cjuotations by Hopper 
about this painting cited subsequently are also from the 
explanation sent to Geske. 

42. Kuh. Tlie Artist's Voice, p. 135, quotes Hopper as listing 
artists that he admired: "Rembrandt above all, and the 
etcher Meryon ... I also like Degas very much." In Rod- 
man, Conversations xeitli Artists, p. 199, Hopper had listed 
Rembrandt, Goya, Degas. Eakins, and Meryon as his favorite 

It was reproduced in Jamot, Degas, owned by Hopper, 
who also might have seen the painting in Philadelphia in 
the Degas exhibition of 1936 :it the Pennsylvania [Philadel- 
phia] Museum of Art. 

Hopper, "John Sloan," p. 173. In this article Hopper men- 
tioned "the honest simplicity of early Dutch and Flemish 
masters. ..." A well-known example where the spectator 
becomes witness is Jan van Eyck's Giovanni Arnolfmi and 
his Bride of 1434 in the National Gallery, London, which 
Hopper would have seen on his visit there during early 
July 1907. For his reaction to Rembrandt's Nightiuatch. see 
p. 25 , above. 

Jean Gillies, "The Timeless Space of Edward Hopper." 
The Art Journal, 31 (Summer 1972), p. 409. 
Author's interview with John Clancy, Hopper's longtime 
dealer in the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery. This comment was 
also recorded by Jo in the ledger entry for this painting. 
O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," pp. 72-73. 

48. See Levin, Edward Hopper as Illustrator, Pis. 10, 11a, 12a, 
16, 235a, 237, 287, 445, 446, 37, 308, 309a, 309b, 310a, 310b, 
312, and Levin, Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints. 
Pis. 28, 34, and 46. 

49. William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 24. 





50. "Now a tender and vast appeasement seems to descend 
from the firmament with the irised star . . . Ah, exquisite 
hour": Paul Verlainc, Selected Poems, translated by C. F. 
Maclntyre (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948), 
p. 95. Hopper quoted this poem in French in his Christ- 
mas card of 1923 for Jo (PI. 35); and to O'Doherty, 
"Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 80; and again in an unpub- 
lished letter of 7 August 1955 to Donald Adams, editor of 
the New York Times Book Review. 

51. O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 80. Hopper 
quoted these lines in both German and English. 

52. Ibid., p. 80, and Hopper to Adams, letter of 7 August 1955. 

53. "The woods are lovely, dark and deep/ But 1 have prom- 
ises to keep. . . ." Earlier this poem described "the darkest 
evening of the year": Robert Frost, "Stopping by Woods 
on a Snowy Evening," from New Hampshire: A Poem with 
Notes and Grace Notes (New York: Holt, 1923). 

54. As quoted in Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 129. 

55. See the preceding chapter, "Development." p. 20. Earlier 
Whistler had been fascinated with the depiction of crepus- 
cular scenes and had been influenced by French Symbolist 
poetry. Hopper would have known some of Whistler's 
Nocturnes. Henri had also admired Whistler. 

56. John Sloan's interest in Symbolist poetry is docunietucd 
by his copy of Poems of Paul Verlaine, translated by 
G. Hall, illustrated by Henry McCarter (Chicago: Stone &: 
Kimball, 1895), preserved in the John Sloan Memorial 
Library, Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington. 

57. Arthur Symons, The Symbolist Movement in Literatine 
(New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., revised edition. 
1919). Some of the early articles on Symbolists in periodi- 
cals of the time were H. T. Peck, "Stephane Mallarme," 
The Bookman, November 1898, and "Baudelaire Legend," 
Scribner's, 45 (February 1909). 

58. The volume was Arthur Rimbaud, Poesies (Paris: Mercure 
de France, 1950). He inscribed it: "a la petite ciiatte qui 
decouvre ses griffes presque tous les jours. Joyeux Noel, 
1951." They also owned a typescript of "Ex traits de 
Morceaux Choisis, Autres Fragments sur Mallarme," by 
Paul Valery. 

59. Arthur Rimbaud, Complete Works, Selected Letters, trans- 
lated by Wallace Fowlie (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1966), pp. 16-17. 

60. Quoted in C. F. Maclntyre, French Symbolist Poetry 
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961), pp. 14-15. 

61. Hopper was inspired by Sloan's subjects more than i)y his 
style. Compare, for example. Hopper's restaurant, theater, 
and movie scenes to Sloan's earlier ones, and to Sloan's 
etching Barber Shop of 1915, which preceded Hopper's 
oil painting Barber Shop of 1931- 

62. Quoted in Kuh, The Artist's Voice, p. 134. 

63. Ibid. 

64. Hopper wrote of Five A.M.: "The idea of this picture had 
been in mind a long time before I started to paint it, and 
I think was suggested by some things that I had seen 
while travelling on the Boston, New York boats on Long 

Island Sound. The original impression grew into an at- 
tempted synthesis of an entrance to a harbour on the New 
England coast"; Edward Hopper to Mrs. Elizal)eth Navas, 
unpublished letter of 12 July 1939. Archives of American 
Art, roll D251, frames 1033-34. 

65. Quoted in Kuh, The Artist's Voice, pp. 135 and 140. 

66. James Thomas Flcxner to Edward Hopper, unpulilished 
letter of 13 May 1961. Flexner also wrote: "I felt both in 
the formal and emotional tensions of your painting a pull 

between restraint and the opulence of nature, l^estraint 
represented by the peaked architecture and the old lady 
for whom all passion is spent; opulence, by the line of 
trees, the sky, and the marvelously buxom young lady sit- 
ting on the edge of the porch, not waiting for anything in 
particular, yet fertile and sure in the movement of the 
seasons to be fulfilled." 
67. Edward Hopper to Lloyd Goodrich, unpublished letter of 
18 May 1961. 


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Barker, Virgil. "The Etchings ot Edward Hopper." The Arls, 
5 (Ju'ie 1924), pp. 323-25. 

Barr, Alfred H., Jr. Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition. 
New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1933. 

Bernard, Sidney. "Edward Hopper, Poet-Painter of Loneli- 
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Brace, Ernest. "Edward Hopper." Magazine of Art, 30 (May 

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Brown, Milton W. "The Early Realism of Hopper and Burch- 
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pression. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University 
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Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1963. 

Burchfield, Charles. "Hopper: Career of Silent Poetry." Art 
News, 49 (March 1950), pp. 14-17. 

Burrey, Suzanne. "Edward Hopper: The Emptying Spaces." 
Arts Digest, 1 April 1955, pp. 8-io-i-. 

Campbell, Lawrence. "Hopper: Painter of 'thou shah not!' " 
Art News, 63 (October 1964), pp. 42-45. 

Cortissoz, Royal. "A Fine Collection at The Brooklyn Mu- 
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p. 8. 

Crowninshield, Frank. "A Series of American Artists, No. 3 — 
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. "The American Paintings of Edward Hopper." Creative 

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Artists Group, Inc., and Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, Inc., 

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light and loneliness." Smithsonian, 2 (September 1971), 

pp. 60-67. 
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Journal, 32 (Summer 1972), pp. 404-12. 
Glueck, Grace. "Art Is Left by Hopper to the Whitney." 

New York Times, 19 March 1971, pp. 1 and 28. 
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Arts, 2 (March 1927), pp. 134-38. 
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Books, 1949. 
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Whitney Museum of American Art, 1950. 
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York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1964. 
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pp. 37-t-. 

. Edward Hopper. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971. 

. Edward Hopper: Selections from the Hopper Bequest 

to the Whitney Mitseiim of American Art. New York: 

Whitney Museum of American Art, 1971. 
Heller, N. and Williams, J. "Edward Hopper: Alone in Amer- 
ica." American Artist, 40 (January 1976), pp. 70-75. 
Hopper, Edward. "Books" (review of Malcolm C. Salaman, 

Firte Prints of the Year, 192^). The Arts, 9 (March 1926), 

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(April 1927), pp. .r.8-78. 
. "Books" (review of Vernon Blake, The Art and Craft 

of Drawing). The Arts, u (June 1927), pp. 333-34- 
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1928), pp. 5-12. 
. "Edward Hopper Objects" (letter to Nathaniel 

Pousette-Dart). Tlie Art of Today, 6 (February 1935), p. 11. 
. "Statements by Four Artists." Reality, 1 (Spring 1953). 

p. 8. 

. Collected correspondence. Whitney Museum of Ameri- 
can Art, New York. 

Jewell, Edward Alden. "This .\merican Painter's Work .Ad- 
mirably Presented at Museum of Modern .A.rt." New 
York Times, 5 November 1933, p. 12. 

. "Early .\rt Shown of Edward Hopper," Neic York 

Sun, 1 1 January 1941. 

Kent, Rockwell. It's Me O Lord: The Autobiography of Rock- 
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Kingsley, April. "Edward Hopper." The Provincetoiun Advo- 
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Kramer, Hilton. "Art: Whitney Shows Items from Hopper 
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Artists. New York: Harper & Row, 1962. 

Lanes, Jerrold. "Edward Hopper: French Formalist, .\sh Can 
Realist, Neither or Both." Art forum. 7 (October 1968), pp. 

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Kennedy Galleries, Inc., 1977. 
. "Edward Hopper's 'Office at Night.' " Arts Magazine. 

52 (January 1978), pp. 134-37. 
. "Edward Hopper, Francophile," Arts Magazine, 53 

(June 1979), pp. 114-21. 
. Edward Hopper as Illustrator. New York: W. W. 

Norton & Company in association with the Whitney 

Museum of American Art, 1979. 
. "Edward Hopper as Printmaker and Illustrator: Some 

Correspondences." The Print Collector's Newsletter, 10 

(September-October 1979), pp. 121-23. 
. Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints. New York: 

W. W. Norton &: Company in association with the Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 1979. 
-. "Some of the finest examples of American primmak- 

. "Edward Hopper's Water Colors Prove Interesting— 

Also Sell." The Sun, 25 October 1924, p. 4. 
Mellow, James R. "Painter of the City." Dialogue, 4, no. 4 

(1971). PP- 74-84- 

. "The World of Edward Hopper." New York Times 

Magazine, 5 September 1971, pp. 14-17-1-. 

Morse, John. "Interview with Edward Hopper." Art in Amer- 
ica, 48 (March i960), pp. 60-63. 

Morsell, Mary. "Hopper Exhibition Clarifies a Phase of 
American Art." Art News, 32 (4 November 1933), p. 12. 

O'Connor, John, Jr. "Edward Hopper, American Artist." 
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O'Doherty, Brian. "Portrait: Edward Hopper," Art in America, 
52 (December 1964), pp. 68-88. 

. "The Hopper Bequest at the Whitney." Art in Amer- 
ica, 59 (September 1971), pp. 68-69 '^"*i 72- 

. American Masters: The Voice and the Myth. New 

York: Random House, 1973. 
Perlman, Bennard B. The Immortal Eight. Westport, Con- 
necticut: North Light Publishers, 1979. 
Perreault, John. "Hopper: Relentless realism, American light." 

Village Voice, 23 September 1971, p. 27. 
Price, Matlock. "The Sun's Poster Contest Shows Art's Value 

in War." The Sun, 25 August 1918, section 3, p. 8. 
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November 1923, p. 2B. 
. "The American Scene." Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 20 

February 1927. p. 6E. 
. "Edward Hopper." Parnassus, 5 (November 1933). pp. 

— . "Racial Quality oi Hopper Pictures at Modern Mu- 
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Eagle, 5 November 1933, pp. 12B-C. 

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Eugene Speicher, Guy Pene du Bois, Rockwell Kent, Ed- 
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Read, Lolan C, Jr. "The New York School of Art," The 
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ton, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1967. 

Soby, James Thrall. Conteinporary Painters. New York: The 
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. "Arrested Time by Edward Hopper." Saturday Revieiu, 

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Winsten, Archer. "Washington Square North Boasts Strangers 

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Winston, 1962. 
. "The Prints of Edward Hopper." Amrricnn Artist. 27 

(November 1963), pp. 38-43. 


Brackets indicate descriptive titles given by the author to previously untitled 
works. The idiosyncrasies of Hopper's spelling and French titles have been 

Acrobats: PI. 331. 

Adam's House: PI. 208. 

Adobe Houses: PI. 308; p. 50. 

[Adobes and Shed, New Mexico]: PI. 307. 

American Landscape: Fig. 43; pp. 39, 40. 

American Village: PI. 130; pp. 32, 33, 34, 38, 

L'Annee Terrible (illustration for): Pig. 29; 

p. 27. 
Anno Domini XIXCV: PI. 336. 
Apartment Houses: Pi. 159; pp. 39, 42. 
Approaching a City: PI. 294; pp. 47, 48. 
Approaching a City (drawing for): PI. 295. 
Apres midi de Juin or L'Apres midi de 

Printemps: PI. 102; pp. 24, 35. 
[Artist's Bedroom, Nyack']: PI. 30. 
[Artist's Studio]: PI. 59. 
August in the City: PI. 258; p. 46. 
August in the City (drawing for): PI. 259. 
Automat: Pi. 327; p. 52. 
Aux Fortifications: Fig. 1; pp. 6, 32. 

Baptistry of Sairit John's: PI. 313; p. 51. 
Baptistry of Saint John's (drawing for): PI. 

314; p. 51. 
The Barber Shop: PI. 161; pp. 42, 58. 
The Barber Shop (drawing for): PI. 162. 

Le Barriere: p. 32. 

[Tiie Battery, Charleston. S.C.]: PI. 316. 

Beam Trawler Osprey: PI. 177; p. 42. 

Beam Trawler Seal: p. 37. 

Beam Trawler Teale: PL 176. 

Before the Footlights: PI. 334. 

La Berge: p. 28. 

Le Bistro or The Wine Shop: PI. 122; pp. 

27. 28, 35, 51, 60. 
Blackiieud. Monhegan: Pis. 139-143; p. 34. 
Blackwell's Island: Pis. 124, 245; pp. 28, 

33. 38. 45. 46- 
Blackwell's Island (drawing for): PI. 246. 
[Blond Woman Before an Easel]: PI. 76; p. 

[Blond Woman Before an Easel] (drawing 

for): Pi. 77; p. 18. 
[BlufJ]: PI. .47; p. 34. 
Boat Landing at Care d'Orleans: PI. 98. 
[Boatyard]: PI. 181. 
The Bootleggers: PI. 175. 
Bow of Beam Trawler: PI. 173. 
[Box]: Fig. 15; p. 16. 
Box Car, Freight Car at Truro: PI. 271. 
Briar Neck: PI. 129. 
The Bridge: p. 29. 
[Bridge in Paris]: PI. 84. 

Bridge on the Seine: PI. 117; p. 26. 

Bridle Path: PI. 254; p. 46. 

Bridle Path (drawings for): Pis. 255, 256. 


British Steamer: p. 28. 

The Buggy or House on a Hill: Fig. 42: 

pp. 38, 39. 
[Burly Cobb's House, South Truro]: PI. 409. 

Cab, Horse, and Crowd: PI. 88. 

[Cabin, Charleston, S.C.]: PI. 311; p. 51. 

[Cabin, Charleston, S.C] (drawing for): PI. 

312; p. 51. 
Cafe: p. 32. 

California Hills: PI. 323. 
The Camel's Hump: PI. 413. 
Camp Nyack: PI. 29. 
Canal at Charenton: PI. 303: pp. 39, 50. 
Canal Lock at Charenton: PI. 104; pp. 23, 

Cape Cod Afternoon: PI. 417. 
Cape Cod Evening: PI. 418; p. 62. 
Cape Cod Evening (drawing for): PI. 419. 
Cape Cod Morning: PI. 399; p. 63. 
Captain Kelly's House: PI. 222. 
Caricature of the artist as a boy holding 

books by Freud and Jung: Fig. 2; p. 9- 

Caricature of "Non-Anger man" anil "Pro- 
Anger woman": Fig. 7: pp. 12-13. 

Carolina Morning: PI. 322. 

[Cars and Rocks]: PI. 205. 

Chair Car: PI. 305; p. 49. 

Cliarleston Doorway: PI. 315. 

CItof) Suey: PI. 328: p. 52. 

The Circle Theatre: PI. 339: p. 53. 

La Cite or He Saint Louis: PI. U2. 

The City: PI. 241; p. 46. 

City Roofs: PI. 52. 

The Coal Box: PI. 406. 

Coast Guard Station: PI. 220. 

[Cobb's Barns and Distant Houses]: Pis. 411, 

[Cobb's Barns, South Truro]: Pis. 408, 410. 

Cold Storage Plant: PI. 224; p. 44. 

Compartment C, Car 2(jj: PI. 272; pp. 47. 

Compartment C, Car 295 (drawings fdrV 
Pis. 273, 274: p. 47. 

Conference at Night: PI, 3G0: p. 58. 

Conference at Night (drawings for): Pis. 
361. 362; p. 58. 

Corn Hill: PI. 405: p. 63. 

Corner Saloon or Xeu' York Corner Pi. 
-'3;i: PP- 5- 30. 39- 43. 45- 

A Couple on a Stage: Fig. 55: pp. 55, 56. 

Cove at Ogunquit: PI. 134; p. 30. 

[Cunard Sailor]: PI. 95: pp. 23. 33. 

Custom House, Portland: PI. i!i7: p. 44. 

Dauphinee House: PI. 415. 

Daun Before Gettysburg: PI. 373: p. 61. 

Daxin Before Gettysburg (drawing for): PI. 

Dunn in Peuns\h'<inia: PI. 281; p. 47. 
Dawn in Pennsylvania (drawing ioi): PI. 

Dead Trees, Gloucester: PI. 198; p. 6. 
Deck of a Beam Trawler: p. 37. 
Une Demirnondaine: pp. 5, 26. 
Les Deux Pigeons: Fig. 4; pp. 10. 32. 60. 
[Docked Freighter and Tugboat]: PI. 182. 
Dome: PI. 87. 
Don Quixote: PI. 74. 
The Dories, Ogunquit: PI. 133; pp. 30, 32. 

The Doiy: PI. 180; p. 43. 
Drug Store: PI. 242: p. 45. 

Early Sunday Morning: HI. 383: pp. 39, (G. 

East River: PI. 23r); pp. 39. 45. 46. 
East Side Interior: Fig. 39; pp. 35, 36. 
East Wind over H'eeliawken: PI. 248; p. 4O. 
East Wind over ]yeehaifken (drawings for): 

Pis. 249. 250. 
Ecluse de la Monnaie or Le Pont Xeuf: 

PI. 118; p. 26. 
The El Station: PI. a6i; pp. 26. 47. 
Eleven .^.^L: PI. 393; pp. 42. 63. 

Evening, The Seine: p. 32. 
Eveniytg Wind: Fig. 38: pp. 3-,, •((), •)(). ()3. 
Excursion into Philosophx: PI. 371: pp. Go. 

The tifer: PI. 65: p. 18. 

[Figures Under a Bridge in l'tuis\. I'l. (|<); 

p. 47. 
[Fireplace at Hopper's \eir York A pari- 

ment]: PI. 50. 
First Row Orchestra: PI. 350: p. 53, 
First Row Orchestra (drawing for): PI. 351. 
Five A.M.: PI. 385: p. 63. 
Fortuny: PI. 64; p. 18. 
Four Lane Road: PI. 29G; p. 50. 
Freight Cars, Gloucester: I'l. 21)7. 
French Six-Day Bicycle Rider I'l. 1G4: p. 42. 
French Six-Day Bicycle Rider (drawing for): 

PI. 165: p. 42. 
[Frencit Wo}nan <fith l>if<ket]: PI. 9!): pp. 23. 

From ]Villiainsburg Bridge: PI. 243. 
From ]Villiamshurg liridge (drawing for): 

PI. 244. 

C;as: I'l. 275: p. 50. 

Gas (drawings for): Pis. 276, 277. 

Gatezray and Fence. Saint Cloud: PI. 105; 

PP- 23. 25. 
[Gill (It a Sewing Machine]: I'l. 138: p. 42. 
[Girl in White]: PI. 79. 
Girlie Show: PI. 347: pp. 54, 55. 
Girlie Show (drawings for): Pis. 348, 349. 
Gloucester Harbor: Pis. 126. 179; pp. 28. 

29. 43- 
Gloucester Houses: I'l. 207. 
Ground Swell: PI. 185; p. 43. 
Guy Pene du Bois: Pis. 32, 33, 34; p. 7. 

[Harlequin and Lady in Evening Dress]: 
PI. 332. 

Haskell's House: Pi. 200; p. 44. 

Haunted House: PI. 215. 

Hettie Duryea Meade: PI. 31. 

High Xoon: PI. 398: pp. 42. G3. 

High Road: PI. 270. 

Hills, South Truro: PI. 407: p. 63. 

Hodgkin's House, Cape Ann, Massachusells: 
PI. 218. 

[Hook Mountain, Xyack]: PI. 28. 

[Hopf)er. Elizabeth Griffiths Smitli. The Ar- 
tist's .Mother]: PI. 25. 

[Hopper, Garrett Henry, The .Artist's 
Father]: Pis. 23, 24. 

[Hopper, Marion, The .Artist's Sister]: PI. 27. 

Hotel by a Railroad: I'l. 297: p. 49. 

Hotel by a Railroad (drawings for): Pis. 298. 

Hotel Lobby: PI. 283: p. 49. 
Hotel Lobby (drawings for): Pis. 284-287: 


Hotel Room: PI. 269; p. .19. 

Hotel Windoic: I'l. 300: pp. 49. -,o. 

Hotel Windozo (drawing for): PI. 301. 

House at Dusk: PI. 384: p. 62. 

House by the Railroad: PI. 2G4: pp. 39, 40, 

House of the Fog Horn, .\o. y. I'l. .(i.]. 
House on a Hill 01 Fhe liuggy: lig. 42: 

pp. 38, 39. 
House on Pamet River: PI. 225. 
House with a Bay Window: p. 37. 
House with Bay Window: PI. 213; p. 44. 
House irith Fence: I'l. 199; p. G. 
[House ii'illi I'eranda, Charleston, S.C.]: PI. 


Ibsen (stud\ of illu.stration): Fig. 5a: p. 52. 
[Ibsen: At the Theatre]: PI. 337. 
//(' Saint Louis or La Cite: Pi. 112. 
[hiterior Courtyard at .fS rue de Lille, 

Paris]: PI. 83; pp. 23, 24. 
Iiileniiission: PI. 352; p. 55. 
Italian Quarter, Gloucester: PI. 196; pp. 37. 

Italian Quarter, Gloucester (watercolor): p. 


[Jo Hopfier]: Pis. 40. 43. 48. 

Jo in Wyoming: PI. 4G. 

Jo Painting: PI. 44. 

[Jo Reading]: PI. 41. 

[Jo Sketching at the Beach]: PI. 37. 

[fo Sketching in the Truru House]: PI. 42. 

[Jo Sleeping]: Pis. 45, 47. 

Joseddy at .Age of b'/j : Fig. 8: p. 11. 

Josie lisant un journal: PI. 54. 

Land of Fog: p. 29. 

[Landlady and Boarders]: PI. 325: p. 12. 

[Landscape with Fence and Trees]: PI. 138. 

Les Lavoirs a Pont Royal: PI. 107. 

The Lee Shore: PI. 186: p. 43. 

Light at Two Lights: Pis. 190. 191. 192. 195: 

Light Battery at Gettysburg: PI. 375: p. 60. 
Light Battery at Gettysburg (drawing for): 

PI. 376. ' 
[Lighthouse]: Pis. 188, 189: p. 43. 
The Lighthouse at Tu'o Lights: PI. 194. 
Lighthouse Hill: PI. 193; p. 43. 
Lime Rock Railroad, Rockland, .Maine: PI. 

265: p. 47. 
Little Cove, Monhegan: PI. 144. 
The Locomotive: Fig. 49: pp. 47. 48. 
Tlie Long Leg: PI. 184. 
The Louvre: p. 27. 
Louvre and Boat Landing: PI. 110. 
Le Louvre et la Seine: PI. 101; pp. 5, 24. 2G. 

The Louvre in a Thunder Storm: PI. 116. 

M/Jcomb'.s Dam Bridge: PI. 251. 

Macomb's Dam Bridge (drawings for): Pis. 

252. 253- 
Maison E. Hopper: Fig. 32: p. 29. 
[Man Drinking]: PI. 80. 
Man with a Hoe: PI. 67; p. 18. 
Manhattan Bridge and Lily Apartments: 

PI. 240. 
Manhattan Bridge Loop: PI. 247; pp. 45, 46. 
The Mansard Roof: PI. 197; pp. 6, 37, 43. 
Marshall's House: PI. 223. 
Un Maquereau (drawing for Soir Bleu): PI. 

The Martha McKean 0/ Wellfleet: PI. 187. 


Mass of Trees at Enstham: PI. 422. 

Meal time: PI. 57; p. 11. 

Meditation, 10 Miles from Home: Fig. 44: 

p. 42. 
Methodist Church, Province town: PI. 221; 

p. 44. 
A Mile. Jo Noel: PI. 35: p. 10. 
Les Miserables (illustration for): Fig. 28: 

p. 27. 
[Model fimmy Corsi Dressed as Fisherman]: 

PI. 72. 
Monhegan Boat: Fig. 41; p. 38. 
Moonlight Interior: PI. 380: pp. 39, 45. 
Morning in a City: PL 394; pp. 42, 63. 
Morning in a City (drawings for): Pis. 395- 

Morning Sun: PI. 400; p. 42. 
Morning Sun (drawings for): Pis. 401-403. 
My Mother: Pi. 26. 

New York Corner or Corner Saloon: Pi. 233: 

PP- .5. 30. 39. 43. 45- 
New York Movie: PI. 340; pp. 53, 54. 
New York Movie (drawings for): Pis. 341- 

343: P- 53- 
New York Office: Pi. 364; p. 58. 
New York Office (drawing for): PI. 365; 

p. 58. 
Neu' York, New Haven and Hartford: PI. 

268; p. 47. 
New York Pavements: PI. 237: pp. 39, 58. 
Neu' York Restaurant: PI. 326: p. 51. 
Nighthau'ks: PI. 386: pp. 20, 62, 63. 
Nighthawks (drawing for): PI. 387. 
Night in the Park: Fig. 21; pp. 20, 21. 
Night on the El Train: Fig. 50; pp. 20, 47. 

48, 60, 62. 
Night Shadou's: Fig. 22: pp. 20, 21, 33, 39. 
Night Windoivs: PI. 381; pp. 20, 62. 
Notre Dame de Paris: PL 108; p. 35. 
Notre Dame, No. 2: PL 109. 
November, Washington Square: PL 51. 
[Nude Crawling into Bed]: PL 75; p. 21. 
[Nude Female Model in Studio]: PL 70; 

pp. 18, 37. 
[Nude Female Model on Platform]: PL 71: 

pp. 18, 37. 

October on Cape Cod: PL 420. 

Office at Night: PL 356: pp. 58, 59, 62. 

Office at Night (drawings for): Pis. 357-359; 

Fig- 3: PP- "o. 58, 59- 
Office in a Small City: PL 363; p. 58. 
Olympia: PL 66; p. 18. 
On tile dnai: p. 29. 

[Painter and Model]: PL 73: p. 18. 

El Palacio: PL 321; p. 51. 

Le Pare du Saint Cloud: PI. 106; pp. 5, 23. 

25. 26, 35. 
[Palis Street]: PL 81; pp. 23, 24. 
[Paiisian ]]'oma}i]: PL 93; pp. 23, 33. 
[Parisian Woman Walking]: PI. 94; pp. 23. 

[Parisian Workman]: PL 92; pp. 23, 33. 
Park Entrance: PL 235: pp. 38, 39. 
Parkhurst House (Captain's House): PL 201. 
Le Pavilion de Flore: PL 115; p. 26. 
Pennsylvania Coal Toum: PL 169; p. 42. 
Pennsylvania Coal Town (drawing for): PL 

People in the Sun: PL 426. 
Perkins Youngboy Dos Passos: PL 49. 
Phil May: PL 58: p. 16. 
Les Poilus: Fig. 36; p. 32. 

Le Pont des Arts: PL 103: pp. 5, 24, 26, 35. 
Pont du Carrousel and Care d'Orleans: PL 

99; p. 24. 
Pont du Carrousel in the Fog: PL 100: p. 24. 
Le Pont Neuf or Ecluse de la Monnaie: PL 

118; p. 26. 
Le Pont Royal: PL 114: p. 26. 
The Port: p. 29. 
Portrait of Orleans: PL 421. 
Pretty Penny: PL 228; p. 44. 
Pretty Penny (drawings for): Pis . 229, 230. 
Prospect Street, Gloucester: PL 209; p. 44. 

Le Qiiai des Grands .lugustins: Pis. 111. 

'19: P- 3,5- 
Queensborough Bridge: PL 232; p. 45. 

The Railroad: PL 89; p. 29, 47. 

Railroad Crossing: Pis. 263, 266; p. 47. 

Railroad Sunset: PL 382: pp. 46, 62. 

Railroad Train: PI. 262; pp. 26, 47. 

[Railroad Trestle in the Desert]: PL 309. 

[Reclining Nude]: PL 38. 

[Reclining Nude on a Couch]: PL 39. 

[Restaurant Scene]: PL 324: p. 51. 

Le Rive de Josie: PL 36. 

[River and Buildings]: PL 85. 

Riverboat: PL 113; pp. 26, 28. 

Road and Trees: PL 304: pp. 39, 50. 

Road in Maine: PL 131: pp. 30, 35. 

Rocks and Houses, Ogunquit: PL 132; pp. 

30. 32, 33. 35- 
[Rocks and Sea]: PL 148; p. 34. 
Rocks at the Fort, Gloucester: PL 202. 

[Rocky Cliffs by the Sea]: PL 153. 

[Rocky Cove IF]: PL 206. 

[Rocky Projection at the Sea]: PL 152; p. 34. 

[Rocky Seashore]: PL 150; p. 34. 

[Rocky Shore]: PI. 146; p. 34. 

[Rocky Shore and Sea]: Pis. 149, 151; p. 34. 

[Rocky Shoreline]: PL 145; pp. 34, 56. 

[Roofs, Saltillo, Mexico]: PL 320: p. 51. 

[Rooftops]: PI. 239. 

Room in Brooklyn: PI. 163. 

Room in Neu< York: PL 366; p. 60. 

Rooms by the Sea: PL 424; p. 63. 

Rooms for Tourists: PL 290; p. 50. 

Rooms for Tourists (drawings for): Pis. 291- 

293; P- 50- 
Route 6. Eastham: PL 278; p. 50. 
Route 6, Eastham (drawings for): Pis. 279, 

Ryder's House: PL 416. 

T/ip sacrament of sex (female version): 
PL 56. 

Sailing: Pis. 125, 171; pp. 28, 42. 

Salem: PL 219. 

Salome: PL 63; p. 18. 

[Satan in Red]: PL 333. 

Sea at Ogunquit: PL 133; pp. 30, 34. 

[Seated Nude]: PL 157. 

[Seated Old Man]: PI. 91; pp. 23, 33. 

[Seated Woman]: PL 68. 

Seawatchers: PL 369; p. 60. 

Second Story Sunlight: PL 425; p. 64. 

[Self-Portrait]: Pis. 1-3, 8-16, 19-22; p. 9. 

[Self -Portrait Sketches]: PL 7; p. 9. 

[Self-Portrait with Hand Studies]: Pis. 4-6; 


[Self-Portrait with Hat]: PI. 18; p. 9. 
[Self-Portrait with Nude and Portrait]: PI. 

17: P- 9- 
Seven A.M.: PL 388; p. 63. 
Shacks at Lanesville: p. 37. 
Shakespeare at Dusk: PL 389; pp. 46, 62. 
Shakespeare at Dusk (drawings for): Pis. 

The Sheridan Theatre: PI. 344; p. 53. 
The Sheridan Theatre (drawings for): Pis. 

345. 346; p. 53- 
The Sketch Book (drawing): Fig. 23; p. 22. 
Skyline, Near Washington Square: PI. 238. 
[Small Town Street]: PL 216. 
Smash the Hun (study for): PI. 155; pp. 34- 

Soir Bleu: PL 378: pp. 5, 7, 30, 31, 32, 52, 

55, 61, 62. 
Soir Bleu (drawing for), Un Maquereau: 

PI- 379- 
Soldiers in Wagon: PI. 372. 
[Solitary Figure in a Theatre]: PI. 335; 

P- 53- 
Solitude: PL 288; p. 50. 
Solitude (drawing for): PL 289. 

Somewhere in France: p. 32. 

South Trtiro Church: PI. 404; p. ()3. 

Squam Light: PI. 128; pp. 28, 35. 

St. Francis Tower, Sartta Fe: PI. 310; p. 50. 

[Si. Michael's College, Santa Fe]: PI. 306; 

p. 50. 
[S/rt/ncay]; PI. 212. 
[Stairiray] (drawing for): PI. 211. 
[Stairway at .fS rue de Lille, Paris]: PI. 82: 

pp. 23, 24. 
[Standing Nude]: PI. 156. 
Status Quo: PI. 55; p. 11. 
[Steam Engine; Railroad of .Vrrc Jersey]: 

PI. 260; p. 47. 
Street in Paris: PI. 86; p. 29. 
Street in Paris (etching): p. 32. 
[Student and Teacher at the Fasel]: PI. 78; 

pp. 18, 20. 
[Studies of Light on Portrait Heads]: I'l. 377. 
Sugar Maple: PI. 319. 
Summer Afternoon: Fig. 5; p. 10. 
Summer Evening: PI. 367; pp. 10, 60. 
Summer in the City: PI. 368; p. 60. 
Summer Interior: PI. 123; pp. 26. 41. 
Summer Street or Yonkers: PI. 234; pp. 34, 

38, 45. 
Summertime: PI. 1O6; p. 42. 
Summertime (drawings for): Pis. 167. ifiS. 

Sun in an Empty Room: PI. 429: pp. 9. 63. 
Sun on Prospect Street: PI. 210; p. 44. 
Sunday: PI. 160; pp. 7. 42. 
Sunlight in a Cafeteria: PI. 330: p. 52. 
Sunlight on Brownstones: PI. 370; pp. 60, 61. 
System (illustration for): Fig. 31; pp. 29, 58. 

Tables for Ladies: PI. 329; p. 52. 

Tall Masts, Gloucester: PI. 127: p. 28. 

This is a comic fncture you )nust laugh: 

PI. 53; p. 12. 
[Three Men at an Art Exhibition]: PI. 69; 

p. .8. 
Train and Bathers: p. 32. 
Tramp Steamer: PI. 172; p. 42. 
Trawler and Telegraph Pole: PI. 178; p. 42. 
[Trees and Bench]: PI. 137. 
Trees in Sunlight, Pare du Saint Cloud: 

PI. 423; pp. 25, 63. 
Tug Boat with Black Smokestack: PI. 121. 
Tugboat at Bouleimrd Saint Michel: PI. 97: 

p. 24. 
Two Comedians: PI. 353; pp. 55-56. 
Txt'o Comedians (drawings for): Pis. 354. 

3.55: P- 55- 
[Two Dories]: PI. 136. 
Two on the .iisle: PI. 338: p. 53. 

Txvo Puritans: PI. 231; pp. 4.}. 50. 
[Two Traiolers]: PI. 174. 

Universalis! Church, Clouccster: PI. 203; 
p. 44. 

I'allex of the Seine: PI. 120; pp. 26. 28. 
Venus—Thorvaldsen: PI. 61; p. 18. 
I'ermont Sugar House: PI. 227. 
[Victorian House]: PI. 214. 
La Vieille Fcmme: PI. 62; p. 18. 
[lillage Church]: PI. 226. 

[l\(n'es and Rocky Shore]: PI. 154. 

lies tern Motel: PI. 302; p. 49. 

[White House witli Dormer Windoiv]: PI. 

While River at Sharon: PI. 318. 
The Wine Shop or Le liistro: PI. 122; pp. 

27. 28, 35, 51, 60. 
\\ ilh llw Refugees: p. 35. 
[IVoman Seated on Table]: PI. 60. 
A IVoman in the Sun: PI. 427. 
A M'oman in the Sun (drawing for): PI. 428. 

Yaud Riding a Swell: PI. 183; p. 43. 
Yonkers or Summer Street: PI. 234; 
38. 45- 

PP- .34 • 

PH( )T( )( ;rapi I IC CREDnS 

Photographs ot the works of art reproduced have Ijecn supplied, in tlie 
majority of cases, by the owners or custodians of the works, as cited in the 
captions. The following list applies to photographs for wiiich an additional 
acknowledgment is due. 

Daniel Abadie, Fig. 27 

Armeii, PI. 344 

Peter Balestero, PI. 241 

E. Irving Blomstrann, Pis. 217, 221, 406 

Lee Boltin, PI. 187 

Lee Brian, Pis. 35, 36, Fig. 51 

Will Brown, PI. 304 

Geoffrey Clements, Pis. 1, 4-8, 11-14, 17, 18, 20-23, 25-28, 
30-34. 37-50. 53-78, 80-124, 126, 127, 129-141, 143-157. 
162, 165-168, 170, 171, 173, 174, 181, 182, 188, 190, 195, 
196, 204-206, 211-214, 216, 219, 222, 225, 226, 229, 230, 
232, 234, 235, 239, 246, 249, 250, 252, 253, 255-257, 259, 
260, 261, 263, 270, 273, 274, 276, 277, 279, 280, 282, 284- 
287, 289, 291-293, 295, 296, 298, 299, 301, 303, 306, 307, 
309, 311, 312, 314, 316, 317, 320-322, 324, 325, 331-337. 
341-343. 345. 346. 348, 349. 351. 377-379. 382. 383. 388, 
390-392. 395-397. 401-403. 408-412, 419, 422, 423, 
Figs. 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 15, 19, 22, 23, 28, 29. 30, 36, 38, 39, 41, 

43. 44. 49. 50. 52. 55 
Bill Finney, PL 175 
William McKillon, PI. 245 

Vincent Miraglia, Pis. 16, 210 

Eric E. Mitchell, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pis. 5, 42 

Carole Palladino, Fig. 17 

Eric Pollitzer, Pis. 177, 186, 198, 200, 231, 236, 288, 305 

Bill Pugh, Delaware Art Museum, PI. 166 

Nathan Rabin, PI. 387 

Sandak, Inc., Pis. 161, 185, 247, 318, 340, 350, 394, 399. 418. 

Elton .Schnellbacher, Pis. 125, 417 
Schlopplein Studio, PI. 421 
Joseph Szasfai, Yale University Art Gallery, Pis. 290, 302, 330, 

414, 424 
Tadder/Baltimore, Pis. 339, 347, 404 
John Tennant, Pis. 172, 297, 393 
Malcolm Varon, Pi. 425 

John Waggamaii, Pis. 128. 142, 164, 179, 231, 368, 427 
Robert Wallace, Pis. 268, 283 
Richard D. Warner, William A. Farnsworth Library aiul Art 

Museum, PI. 215 
Courtesy Stiidtische Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, PI. 160 
Courtesy Kunsthaus Zurich. Pis. 327, 384 


Brackets indicate descriptive titles given by the author to previously un- 
titled works. The idiosyncrasies of Hopper's spelling and French titles 
have been preserved. Some of Hopper's works are known by both French 
and English titles. Where variants exist, the caption follows the form used 
in the artist's ledgers. 


Durinf^ Hopper's fortnatwc yrars he painted, sketched, and 
etched his .wlf-porlrait repeatedly, a proce.'is of .self-analysis that 
reflected hi.s introspectiiie nature. "Great art," he wrote, "is the 
outii'iird expre.ssion of an inner life in the artist. . . ." 

PI. I. \^elf-Porlrait\. |uir' -,. 1900. Contc on paper, i.) x 
12 inclics. Collection ol Mr. and Mrs. |ocl Harnett. 

C. rW^O^ ^ Ht^UlJEAc 

' < i 

PI. 2. [Self-Portrnil], igoo. Pencil on paper, 5I4 x 3% inches. Ken- 
nedy Galleries, Inc., New York. 

PI. 3. [Self-Portrait], c. igoo. Pencil on paper, 10I4 x SVi inches. 
Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Blum. 


PI. 4. [Self-Portrait and Hand Studies], c. 
1900. Pen and ink on paper, 8i%6 x 5% 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 5. [Self-Portrait and Hand Studies], c. 
1900. Pen and ink on paper, 7% x 5 inches. 
Whitney Museum of .American Art, New 
York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 6. [Self-Portrait with Ha 
1900. Pen and ink on paper 
inches. Whitney Museum of 
New \'ork; Bequest of Joseph: 

nd Studies], c. 

7Ww, X 4i5/i(i 

American Art, 

ne N. Hopper. 

PI. 7. [Self-Portrait Sketches], c. 1900. Pen 
and ink on paper, Si-^g x 5% inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70,1561.115 

PI. 8. [Self-Portrait], c. 1900. Conte on paper, 
15 X 11% inches. Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.15O0.81 


PI. 9. [Self-Porlrait]. ifjo-j. Charcoal on paper, iSl/, . 12 inches. Na- 
tional Portrait f.allciv, Smithsonian Iiisiitiitif)n, W'a.shington. D.C. 

I'l. 10 [Self-Portrait], c. 1903. Oil on canvas, 2ol/4 x 16 inches. Mu- 
seum of Fine .Arts, Boston: The Charles Havden Fund. 


PI. II. [Self-Portrait], 1903. Oil on canvas. 14 x 10 inches. Whitney 
Museum of .\meiican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hop- 
per. 70.1650 

PL 12. [Self-Porlrait], c. 1904-6. Oil on canvas, 26 x 22 inches. Whit- 
ney .Museum of .American Art, Xew \'ork; Bequest of Josephine \. 
Hopper. 70.1253 


PI. !■;. [Self-Portrait], c. 1904-6. Oil on can- 
vas, 28 X i'jWic, inches. ^Vhitney Museum of 
American Art. New York: Request of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1254 

PI. 14. [Self-Portrait], c. 1904-6. Oil on 
board, iG^'j^o x la-j],; inches. AVhittiev Mu- 
seum of American Art, New York; Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1410 

PI. 15. [Self-Portrait], c. 1904-6. Oil on can- 
vas, 20 X 16 inches. Thyssen-Bornemisza Col- 


PI. 17. [Selj-Portrait u'ith Nude and Portrait], 
c. 1918. Etching plate, 7% x 7 inches. Exists 
only in posthumous print. Whitnev Museum 
of American Art, New York; Request of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 18. [Self-Portrait with Hat], c. 1918. Etch- 
ing plate, 4% X 4 inches. Exists only in post- 
humous print. Whitney Museum of .Amer- 
ican .\rt. New York: Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 


PL 19. Self-Portrait, 1919-23. Drypoint on 
zinc, 6x4 inches. Philadelphia Museum of 
Art; Purchased, The Harrison Fund. 

PI. 16. [Self-Portrait], 1910. Watercolor on paper. 
Private collection. 

1814 X 12^4 inches. 


PI. 20. [Self-Portrait]. i925-'5o. Oil on canvas, 251/50 x 20^>( inches. Wliitnev Museum of .American .\rt. New 
York; Request of Josepliine X. Hopper. 70.1165 


PI. 21. [Self-Poi trait], 1945. Contt' on paper. 22i<( 15 inches. \Vhit- 
ney Museum of .American .\ri. New ^ork: Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.336 

PI. 22. [Sclf-Poitniit]. 194-,. Conte on paper. 22 . 15 inches. Whitney 
Museum of American \rt. New ^ork; Request of Josephine N. Hop- 
per. 70.287 


Asa yoimt;; innii . Hopjwr ojlrn ilcpictcil his lunllicr. ffither. fnul si\/cr. 0( (asiondUy lir jinnilcd jxtrlrdUs <ij his jrii'mls. (iniotii:^ 
ihnn his ( Itissiiiulc in in! sdiool dux Phw dtt llois and his ^^irlfiiiinl flcllir Diiryra Meade. Veins Inter, he freijiiently por- 
trayed his ivifc, Jo, wlio also modeled for all of llie women it: his puintini^s. He sometimes teased her witli satniial airtoous. 
Hopper's surroundings, too. became subjects for his art— his studio, his bedroom. Hook Mountain . the viiuv from the uuiter- 
front near his home, and ]]'ashini:.ton Square in New York City, where he lived for ireer fifty years. 

PI. -'1. [(.(())(■// Heinx Unppci. The Irlisl's Father], c. 
igoo. Gouache, 13!/^ x 10I4 inches. Keniiecl\ Galleries. Inc.. 
New York. 

ri. 25. [Etiziihelh (,)iffilhs Sinilli Hopper. The htist's Mother] 
1916-20. Oil on cainas. 38 . <52 inches. AN'hitnev Museum of .\mei- 
ican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1191 

Pi. 23. [Garrett Henry Hopper. The htist's 
Father], 1900-1906. Conte on paper. 24I4 x 
i83^ inches. Whitnev Museum of .American 
Art, \ew York: Bequest of Josephine \. 
Hopper. 70.1 -,49 recto 

PI. 26. .\/y .Mother, c. 1920. Sanguine on 
paper, 21 x 1--,% inches. Whitnev Museum of 
American Art. New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine \. Hopper. 70.298 


PI. 28. [Hook MoutUaiu. Xyack], c. 1899. \V'atercolor on paper, 5x7 inches. Whitnev Museum of 
American .Art, New \ori<.: Bequest of fosepfiinc N. Hopper. 70.1558.55 

PI. 27. [Marion Hopper, The Artist's Sister], 
1899. Pen, ink, and pencil on paper. i4'54g x 
11% inches. Whitney Mu.seum of American 
Art, New ^'ork: Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1566.36 

jaCJff u)^:^l5l3 o» I Ant- 

Pl. 29. Camp Nyack, 1900. Pen and ink on paper, 10 x 14!^ inches. 
Collection of Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Leshner. 

I N 1 I M A r K LIFE 9 1 

PL 30. [Artist's Bedroom, \'\ark], c. 1903-6. Oil on board. loVic - 11 ^if; inches. W'hitnev Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New ^ork; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1412 

92 l^TI^^ATE lifi- 

PI. 31. Hettie Diiryea Meade, c. 1905. Oil 011 canvas, 22 x iS inches. 
Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, Inc., New York. 

PI. 32. Guy Pine du Bois, c. 1903. Pen and 
ink on paper, 9 x 5% inches. Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art, New York; Bequest 
of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.1561.105 

PI. 33. Guv Prne du Bois, c. 1905. Oil on 
canvas, 24 x 17 inches. Collection of Yvonne 
Pene du Bois and William P^ne du Bois. 

PI. 34. Guy Pene du Bois, 1919. Sanguine on 
paper, 21 x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American -Art. New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine \. Hopper. 70.907 


^ JV/^/(B. Cjo. ^*^ vdste et tendre Dw firw«curr.ervt 

PI. 35. J Mile. Jo Xoel, 1923. Gouache on paper. 7 x 85/^ inches. Private 

PI. 36. Le fiet'c de Josie, c. 1924-30. Pencil 
on paper, 11 x 81/4 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 37. [7o Sketching at the Beach], 1925-28. VVatercolor on paper, 13% x 20 inches. Whitney Museum of .Amer- 
ican .Art, Xew York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1129 


t^ /^"ft^/^^^ 


PI. 38. [Reclining Xude], c. 1925-30. Watercolor on paper, 13% x 19% inches, Whitney Museum of .\merican .Art, 
New \ork; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1089 

PI. 39. [Reclining Xude on a Couch], 1925-30. 
Charcoal on paper, 15% x 18 inches. Whitney 
Museum of American .Art, New \'ork: Request of 
Josephine \. Hopper. 70.296 

PI. 40. [Jo Hopper], 1934-40. Contc on pa- 
per, 15 X 19 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American .Art. New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.289 

PI. 41. [Jo Reading], 1934-35. Clonte on 
paper, ir^Yic, x la^i; inches. Whitney 
Museum of .American .Art, New \ork: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper, 70.909 


PI. 42. [Jo Sketching in the Truro House], 1934-40. Watercolor on 
paper, 131548 x 20 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1106 

PI. 43. [/o Moppet], c. 1935-40. Conte on paper, 15!^ < 22% inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.293 

PI. 44. Jo Painting. 1936. Oil on canvas, iS 
X 16 inches. Whitney Museum of .American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1171 

flfi IN riM All 1 I IK 

i-^^^m^ M^iii 

PI. 1',. [/() Sleeping], c. 1940-45. Watcicolor and pencil on ilhistiation hoard. iiU'i,; ■■ 18 indips. \Vhitnc\ M; 
seuin of .\iiieiican Art, New ^■ork: Request of Jo.sephiiic \. Hopper. 70.1113 

PI. 46: Jo in U'yomiriu;. |ulv 1946. Watenolor on paper, \$^'i,i x 20 inches. AVhitney Museum of .American Art, 
New ^ ork: Request of Jcsephine N. Hopper. 70.1 159 


PI. 48. [Jo Hopper], 1945-50. Charcoal 011 
paper, 18 x 15% inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York: Bequest of 
Josephine X. Hopper. 70.288 

PI. 47. [Jo Sleeping], 1940-45. Conte on paper, 15 x aaVs inclus. \\'liitnc\ Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.292 

PI. 50. [Fireplace at Hopper's New Yorh 
Apartment], c. 1925-30. Pen and ink on pa- 
per, 12^^,; X 7 inches. Whitnev Museum of 
American .Art, New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine X. Hopper. 70.811 

PI. 49. Perliin'i Youngboy Dos Passos, 1941. Conte on paper, 15 . 22 inches. \Vhitnev Museum 
of .American Art, Xew York; Bequest of Josephine X, Hopper. 70.659 


I'l -, I Xiivi'iiihrr. \\'ii\lnuis^li>ii Stiiiinc. \c)'y^ and t'j',')- Oil on cainas, ■( | . .-,o inthcs. Santa Baibai.i 
Museum of Art. California. 

PI. 52. City Roofs, 1932. Oil on canvas, 29 x 3() inilics. Piixatc collection. 


/ ' -^ 




^ /:. , ■ 

PI. 54. ]osie Usant un journal, 1925-35. Pen- 
cil on paper, 5% x 8X4 inches. Private collec- 

SfATi/i Quo 

PI. 53. This is n comic picture you must laugh, c. 1899. Pen 
and ink on paper, 8x5 inches. ^Vhitney Museum of American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1553.74 

PI. 55. Status Quo, 1932, Pencil on paper, 
II X 81/4 inches. Private collection. 

j^K* " 






— . 

1 rf 

-ft % ^ 






,rt - 


PI. 56. ihe sacrament of sex (female nersioii). c, 1935-40. Conte on pi j.„ /vfertZ time, c. 1935-40, Contc on paper, 8 x 9% inches. Private 
paper, 814 x n inches. Private collection, collection. 


Hopper Studied pninlinn; at the I\'eu> York School of Art with William Merritt 
Chase, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and Robert Henri, zuliorn he considered his 
most influential teacher: "Few teachers of art have irotten as mucli out of their 
pupils, or given them so great an initial impetus." This zras a period of much 
experimentation for Hopper, in which he tried many different tcchnicjues, 
styles, and subjects. 



I'l. 58. Phil May, 1H99. I'cii and ink 011 illiisl ration board, iiilj x 5% 
inches. \Vhitney Miiscuni of ,\nuri(an Art. Ncnv ^ ()rl<.: Bequest of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.i5r,';.io4 

PI. 59. [Artist's Studio], c. 1900. I'cn. ink. anil pencil on [japcr. i)ij 
X 11% inches. Whitney Musciini of .\merican .Xrt, New ^'ork: Be- 
quest of Josepliine X. Hopper. 70.1566.147 

PI. (io. []\'oni(ni Sealed dii Tidde], 1900. Pencil on paper. 14 y 10 
inches. \\'hilne\ Miiscmn of .American .Art. Xcw ^■ork; Bequest of 
Josephine \. Hop])cr. 70.1555.4 


PI. Gi. Venus— Thoyxuildsen, c. 1901. Pencil on 
paper. 8I4 X 5% inthes. A\'hitne\ Museum of 
American Art, New York: Request of Jose- 
phine X. Hopper. 70.1560.117 

PI. 62. Sketch after Rodin's I.n J'ieille Femine, 
1901. Pen and ink on paper, 8% x .5% inche.s. 
Whitney Museum of .American An. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 
70.1561 .106 


A- .^ 



PI. 63. sketch after Regnault's Sdloiiic. c. 1900-1907. I'en and 
ink on paper. 10^7 inches. \Vhitne\ Museum of .American .Art, 
New \ork; Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.1560.98 

PL 6.J. Fcntiiuy, c. 1900-1907. Pen and ink on paper, 10 x 7 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American .\rl, Xew \ork; Bequest of Josepliine X. Hop- 
per. 70.1560.97 


k \ 

PI. G5. Sketch after Manet's The Fifcr, 1900- 
1907. Pen and ink on paper, 10 x 7 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 66. Sketch after Manet's Olympia, 
1900-1907. Pen and ink on paper, 8% x 
51/4 inches. Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art. New ^'ork; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1561.133 

PI. 67. Sketch after Millet's Man Willi a Hoe, c. 
1900-1907. Pen and ink on paper, lo^^ x ii^^Kfi 
inches. Whitney Museum of American .Art. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1565.64 


PI. 68. \^eated \Voman\, c. 1900. Charcoal on paper, i6i/^ x 1014 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1560.168 

%1^igga»ftg«^^aa^:^^4i;;;;^^Ee giw »^^ 

PI. 69. [Three Men at an Art Exhibition], 1900-1903. Conte on paper, 
9% X 61/16 inches. Whitney Museum of .-\merican Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.1560.51 


PI. -o. [I\'udf Female Model in Studio], c. 1900-1903. 
Charcoal on paper, lal^ x 9V2 inches. Whitney Miiseuni 
of American y\rt, New ^'ork; Bequest of Josephine \. 
Hopper. 70.1560.90 

PI. 71. [Nude Female Model on Platform], c. 1900- 
1903. Charcoal on paper, 18% x 12% inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American .\rt. New York: Re- 
quest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.1566.118 

PI. 72. [Model Jimmy Corsi Dressed as Fisherman], 1901. 
Pencil on paper. i4''^{i; > " inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New \'ork: Bequest of Josephine N. Hop- 
per. 70.1566.7 


PI. 74. Don Quixote, c. 1902-4. Oil on board. 17 x la^; inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of .American An, New 'S'ork; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1404 

PI. 73. [Painter and Model], c. 1902-4. Oil on board. 10I4 x Sl/ic, 
inches. W'hitnev Museum of American Art, New ^ork: Request of 
Josepliine .\. Hopper. 70.1420 


PL 75. [Nude Craii'ling into Bed], 1903-5. Oil on board, \2X\ y 9% 
inches. Whitney Museum of .American ,'\rt. New York: Request of 
Josephine X. Hopper. 70.1294 

PI. 77. Study for painting, 
[Blond Woman Before (in 
Easel], 1903-6. Conte on 
paper, 7% x ,5iyi(i inches. 
Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New York: Ik'- 
quest of Josephine N'. Hop- 
per. 70.1559.22 

PI. 76. [Blond ^]'oman Before an Easel], c. 1903-6. Oil on board. 
i6i-%n X 1214 inches. Whitney Museum of .American .\rt. New York: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1417 


PI. 78. [Student and Teacher at the Easel], c. 
1903-6. Oil on board, i2i/£) x 9^>i inches. ^Vllit■ 
ney Museum of .American .Art. Xew York: Re- 
quest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.130"; 

PL 79. [Cirl in Wliite], c. 1903-f). Oil on cainas, 
22 X 17% inches. Kennedy Galleries, Inc., New 

PI. 80. [Man Drinking], c. 1905-6. Oil on 
canvas, 14% x 9^%6 inches. Whitney Mu- 
seum of American .Art, New York: Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1648 


Paris cnthnilli-il llopjirr. ]io)/i his first visil (October ig(>6-Jjine rgoy) 
to the hricf trips lie made there in igog arul kjio. /» Paris, Hopper spent 
liis time painliiig out-of-doors and visitirii^ art exhibitions. 

PI. 81. [I'aris Styecl\, 1906. Oil 011 wood. 13 y 10 
inches. W'hitncv Muscuiii of American Art, New \ork: 
15cciue,st of |oscphinc \. Hopper.'9() 

IM. S-. [S/,;;,,/',)v III /'V III,' il, I ill, . /',n;\|. I90(i. Oil 
on \voo(!, I ;j x 9V4 inches. W'hitncv Mnsemii of Ainer- .\it. New \ori<: Bequest of Josephine \. Hop- 
per. 70.1295 

PI. 83. [Interior ('ointyard at -4H 1 lie de Lille, Pari\]. 
1906. Oil on wood, 13 x 9% inches. Whitney .Mu- 
seum of .\merican .Art, New \'ork; Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1304 

PARIS 109 

PI. S). [Ih-iiliir ni Paris], 1906. Oil on wood, 9% x 13 inches. Whitncv Mnsi'um of .American .\il. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1305 


PI. 85. [River and Buildiup^s]. 1906-7. Oil on wood, 9I4 :- 13 inches. Whitney Museum of .American 
.Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1301 

1 1 O PARIS 

PI. 86. Street in Paris, 1906-7. Pencil and charcoal witli 
touches of white paint on paper. 1314 y 16 inches. I'rivale 

PI. 87. Dome, 1906-7 or 1909. Conte, wash, charcoal, and 
pencil on paper, 21% x 9% inches. Whitney Museum of 
American .\rt. New \ork; Bequest of Josephine \. Hop- 
per. 70.1434 

PARIS 1 1 1 

PI. 88. Cab, Horse and Crowd, 1906-7 or 1909. Conte, 
charcoal, and wash with touches of white on paper, 18% 
X 14% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1436 


PI. 89. The Railroad, 1906-7 or 1909. Conte. charcoal, and 
wash with touches of white on paper. 1734 x 14% inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1437 

PL 90. [Figures Under a Bridge in Paris], 1906-7 or 
1909. Conte and wash on illustration board, 22% x 
15% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1339 

1 1 2 PARIS 


- '^■l^-\. 

PI. gi. \^eated Old Mari], 1906-7 or 1909. Wateicolor 
and pencil on composition board, 15 x 10I4 inches. 
Whitney Museinii of American Art, New "S'ork; Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1329 

PI. 92. [Parisiati W'orkiiiaji], 1906-7 or 1909. Watcrcolor 
and pencil on composition board, i^i^j x loiYy, inches. 
^Vhitney Museum of American .\rt. New \'ork: Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1333 



PI. 93. [Parisuuj ]Vo}naii\, 1906-7 or 1909. Watcrcolor 
on com]3osition board, ii1%g x 9%(I inches. Whitney 
Museum of .\merican Art, New York; Bequest of Jose- 
phine \. Hopper. 70.1324 

PARIS 1 1 Jj 

PI. 94. [Patisid'i U'oDiau Walking], 1900-7 or 1909. 
Watcrcolor on composition board. iii'Mc, ^ 9% inches. 
Whitney Museum of American An. Xcw York; Be- 
quest of Joscpliine N. Hopper. 70.1323 

I'l. 95. [Cuuiiiil Siiili))]. 1906-7 or 1909. \\ ateriolor on 
composition board. 141-^0 x 10% inches. Whitney Mu- 
seum of .\merican .Art, New York; Bequest of Jose- 
phine \. Hopper. 70.1335 


I'l. 9G. [French Woman with lUishct], 1906-7 or 1909. 
Watercolor and pencil on illustration board, 15 x 10I4 
inches. Whitney Musciun of .\nierican Art, New York; 
Bequest of |osephinc \. Hopper. 70.1331 

1 14 PARIS 

PI. (j~. 'I'ln^hoiii at Boulevard Saint Michel, 1907. Oil <in canvas, 2^'^\ ■ -'S"'<( iiithcs. Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New \'ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1250 

PI. 98. Boat Landing at Gare d'Orleans, 1907. 
Oil on canvas, 22,y-> x aSH/^o inches. Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1229 

PARIS 1 1 5 

PI. 99. Pont du Carrousel and Care d'OrUans, 1907. Oil on caiixas, i."5''' 1 • ^S's inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1230 

PI. 100. Pont du Carrousel in the Fog, 1907. Oil 
on canvas, 23I4 x 28^4 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American .Art, New York; Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1245 



PI. loi. Le Louvre et la Seine, 1907. Oil on canvas, 231,4 x 281/4 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1186 


^*"^ tS^A^i^^., __. 

PI. 102. Apres midi de Juin or L'apres midi de 
Printemps, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23!^^ x 2814 
inches. Whitney Museum of American .Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 172 

PARIS 1 1 7 

PI. 103. Le Pont des Arts, 1907. Oil on canvas, 231^46 x aSi/ic, inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1181 

PI. 104. Canal Lock at Charenlon, 1907. Oil on 
canvas, 23% x 28% inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1227 

1 1 8 PARIS 

PI. 105. Gateway and Fence, Saint Cloud, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23 x 28 inches. Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of fosephine N. Hopper. 70.1231 

PI. 106. Le Pare du Saint Cloud, 1907. Oil on canvas, 2312 x 2814 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1180 

PARIS 1 19 

PI. 107. Les Lavoirs a Pont Royal, 1907. Oil on canvas, 2314 x 281/4 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1247 

1 2() I'ARIS 

PI. 108. Notre Dame de Palis, 1907. Oil 011 canvas, li^^/o x ^814 incliL-s. W'liitiify Muscui 
of .American Art, New 'k'ork: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1179 

PI. 109. Notre Dame. \o. 2, 1907 or 1909. Oil on canvas, 23 ., 28I;; inches. \\liiliie\ Mu- 
seum of American .\rt. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.121;:; 

PARIS 121 

PI. 110. Louvre (ind lUml I .nniliiii!:. "J"; "i i')<"l <'il i'" camas, 23 i^Si j inches. Whitney 
Museum of .American .\it, \e\v \ork; IJecjuest of |osepliine X. Hopper. 70.1249 

PI. 111. Le Qtiai des Grands Augustlns iinth Trees, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23:54 X 283/, 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hoppter. 

2 2 PARIS 

PI. 112. lie Saint Louis or La Cite, 1909. Oil on canvas, 23% x 28% inches. Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1177 

I'l. 113. Kiverboat, 1909. Oil on canvas, 28 < 48 inches, Whitney Museum ot .American Art. 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1190 

PARIS 123 

PI. 114. / (■ Potit l!('\iil. n)i)i). Oil on, nji , 281^ inches. \Vhitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josepliine N. Hopper. 70.1175 

PI. 115. Le Pavilion de Flore, 1909. Oil on canvas. 23% x 2814 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1174 

12 4 I' A R 1 S 

PI. ii6. The Louvre in a Thunder Storm, 1909. Oil on canvas, 23 x 28% inches. Whitnev 
Museum of American .Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1223 

PI. 117. Bridge on the Seine, 1909. Oil on canvas, 23V1; ^ -81/) inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1176 

PARIS 125 

PI. iiH. Le Pont i\euf or luiiisc tlr hi Motiimit', \()<h). Oil on canvas, 231/4 ■■ a8 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American .Vrt, New \ork, Betjuest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1178 

PI. lit). Le Qiiai.des Grands Augustins, 1909. Oil on canvas, 231^ X 281/^ inches. Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 173 


In the period after his return from Paris in rgoy. Hopper painted restaurants, interiors, cityscapes, 
and nautical scenes, all themes that would preoccupy him during his mature years. With these 
works, Hopper tried to free himself of French subject matter and style. "It seemed aivfjilly crude 
and raw here when I got back. It took me ten years to get over Europe." 

PI. 120. Valley of the Seine. 1908. Oil on canvas, 26 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1183 

38 inches. Whitney Museum of .American .\rt. New 

PL 121. Ttii^ Boat u'ith Black Smokestack, c. 1908. Oil on canvas, 20 x 
29 inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, New York: Bequest of 
Josephine .\. Hopper. 70.1192 


PL 122. Le Bistro or The Wine Shop, 1909. Oil on canvas, 23-% x 2W2 inches. Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1187 

PI. 123. Summer Interior, 1909. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1197 

128 IRANSn U).N AI. ^KARS 

PI. 124. Ulackivclis Island, ujii. Oil oil camas, i.'4 ,., L'y inches. \Vhilin\ MuMum of 
American Art, New York; IJequest of Josepliiiie N. Hopper. 70.1188 

I'l. iL>-,. Siii/liig. i()i I. Oil on caiixas, 1;} ■■ 29 incfies. 
Mnscnin of Art, Carnegie Insliliue, I'ittsl)ingfi. 
I'eiinsNlvaiiia; (.ift of Mr. and Mrs. |aiiirs H. Beal 
in Honor of the Sarah .M. .Scaife (iallerv. 


PL 126. Gloucester Harbor, 1912. Oil on canvas, 26 x 38 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1204 

PI. 127. Tall Masts, Gloucester, 1912. Oil on 
canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of fosephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1198 


PI. 128. Squam Light, 1912. Oil on caiuas, 24 x 29 iiiclus. l'ii\atf (dllcction. 

PI. 129. Briar Neck, 1912. Oil on canvas. 24 x 29 inches. Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1193 


I'l. 130. AiiK'i iriiu I'lllni^f. h)12. Oil cm c;ui\as, :;() ., 38 inclK'S. Whitney Muscuin (jf Aiiiciican Art. New \'(iik; Bequest of Josephine \. He 
per. 70.1185 


I'l. I'ji- Road in Maine, nji I *''! "i' i.m\.is. ^| ^<) iiiilns. Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New \oik; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1U01 

PI. 132. Rocks and Homes, Ogunquil, 1914. Oil 
on canvas, 23% x 28% inches. Whitney Museinn 
of American Art. New ^■ork; Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1202 

A ,, .flS- >y;3lk 


PI. 133. Tlie Dories. O'Tini/jiiil . 191-). Oil mi camas, I'l . i;<) iiuhcs. \\'hitnc\ Museum of 
American Art. New \ork: Bequest of |osephine N. Hopper. 70.1196 

Pi. 134. Cove at Ogunqiiil, 1914. Oil on can\as. 
24 X 29 inches. Whitney Museum of American 
.Art, New \ork; Bequest of Josephine \. Hop- 
per. 70.1199 

131 TRANSiriONAl. ^1.ARS 

PI. 135. Sen at Oguntjuil . 11J14. Oil on lainas, 24^4 ■ -'gis inches. WhitUL-N Muscimi of Amer- 
ican Art, New 'iork; 15cc]uc'st of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1195 

PI. 136. [Tiro Doric 

.-Vmerican .\rt, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1314 


PI. 137. [Trees and Bench], 1916-19. Oil on wood yi^ x 13 inches. Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1316 

PL 138. [Landsciij)e irith foice and Trees], c. itjHi-U). Oil on canvas, g'/n; ,. 12% inches. Whitney 
Museum of .American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1667 


In the summer of i()i6. Hopper ruent to Monhegan Island, Maine. Completely capt'wated by its roeky shores and towering head- 
lands, he worked out-of-doors, painting many vieivs of the island's dramatic shoreline. He liked Monhegan so much that he re- 
turned for the next few summers and used the landscape there as a point of departure for the exploration of form and light. 


PI. 139. Blackhead, Monhegan, c. 1916-19. 
.Sanguine on paper, 12I4 x 16 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art. \ew York: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.367 

PI. 140. Blackhead, Monhegan, 1916-19. Oil on wood, 91^ x 13 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1317 

PI. 141. Blackhead, Monh( ■^iiii . 1 '1 1 ii im. Oil on wood, 11% x 16 inches. 
Whitney Museum of .American ,\rt, New York; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1291 

PI. 142. Blackhead, Monhegan, 1916-19. Oil on wood, 1 1'}4 x 16 inches. 
Private collection. 


PI. 143. Blackhead, Monhegan, 1916-19. Oil on wood, 9% x 13 inches. Whitney Museum of American .^rt, New York; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1668 


PI. 144. Little Cove, Monhegan, 1916-19. Oil on board, 9'54(i x 13 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1669 

PI. 145. [Rocky Shoreline^, i9ifi-i<j. Oil (in l)ciai(l, ^y^ x 12% inches. Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1672 


PI. i4f). [Rocky Shore], 1910-19. Oil on wood. 9l[, v 13 iiulKs. W'hitnev Museum of Ainciiian 
Art, New York: of [osephine \. Hopper. 70.1309 

PI. 147. [lihifj]. 1916-19. Oil on board, gV^ 
X 12 inches. Wfiitnev Museum of .American 
Art, Xew ^'ork: Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1319 


PI. iii8. [Rocks and Sea\, 1910-19. Oil on wood, 11% x 16 inches. Whilncy Musciiin oi Viruiiciii 
New '^'ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1292 


I'l I |,| j;<>ih\ \:nr, ami \< ,1 . i(|i(i ii|. Oil (III wiiiiil. ll-'i ■- I'.'^'s in 
ican Alt, New 'loik; Bequest ol )o.sephiiu' \. Hopper. 7o.ii.'r)7 

W InliM \ Ml 

)! \mei- 


PL 150. [Rocky .SV'«s/(ore], ujifi-ig. Oil on canvas, gi-^, x lai-Vjc Indies. Whitncv Museum of Anic 
ican Art, New ^■ork: Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper, 70.1666 

PI. i-,i. [Itochx SInt:, ,.•!,! Sc(i\, 1916-19. Oil oil \ i\'^ ■ i() iiRlies. \\ liitnex Museum ot 
.\merican Art, New \ork: Bequest of [oscphine \, Hopper. 70.1290 



PI. 152. [Rocky l')oirrlit)U al the Sen], 1916-19. Oil on hd.nil, 9 v^':^ imlic-;. \\Iiiiik\ Miimiiiii cil \niriii,iii Ait. \C\v ^iiik; lk'(]iiest of [osc- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1310 




PI. 153. [Rocky Cliffs by the Sea], 1916-19. Oil on canvas, 9% x 12% inches. Whitncv Museum of 
American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1675 

PI. 154. [Waves and Rocky Slimcl. iijifi-ig. Oil on wootl. ii\, 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.128 

Whitnev Museum of 


After years of struggle, Hopper began to receive recognition 
when he won his first award since art school— in a ximrtime 
poster competition cotiducted by the United States Shipping 
Board, in which there xvere fourteen hundred cjitries. For his 
poster Smash the Hun, he received the first prize of three hun- 
dred dollars. In January i()2o, Hopper had his first one-man ex- 
hibition at the Whitney Studio Club, located on West Fourth 
Street. During the early ip20s, he frequently attended the eve- 
ning classes held at the club, luhere a model posed and artists 
paid a fee of twenty-five cents. 

PI. 155. Study for poster, Smash the Hun, 
1918. Gouache on iUustration board, gi/^ x 6% 
inches. The Charles Rand Penney Collection. 

PI. 156. [Standing Nude], October 26, 1923. 
Sanguine on paper, 19 x iii%(; inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New Nork: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.661 

PI. 157. [Seated Nude], c. 1923. Charcoal on 
paper, 19 x 121/^ inches. Whitney Museum 
of American ,\rt. New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.401 


From his early maturity through the end of his career, Hopper xuas interested in the solitary figure lost 
in thought. Even when other figures are visible, the ce?itral figure is often psychologically remote, exist- 
ing in a private space. 

PI. 158. [Girl at Sewing Mnrhine], c. 1921. Oil on canvas, 19 x 18 inches. riiysseii-Boinemis/;i Collection. 


PI. 159. Apnrltuent Houses, 1923. Oil 011 canvas, 25I/2 ^, 3112 inches. Cuintcsv of llic rLiinsN haTiia .\ca(lciii\ of the I iin \!i- I'hiladclphi 
Lambert Fuiui Purchase. 


PI. ttio. Siindny, 1926. Oil on canvas, 29 v 34 inches. The Phillips Collection. Washington. D.C. 


PI. i6i. Tlie Barber Shop, 1931. Oil on canvas, 60 a 7^ inches. Xcubcigcr Museum, State University of New \'ork at Purchase. 

PI. 162. Drawing for painting. The Barber Shop, 1931. Conte and char 
coal on paper, 121^ x 17% inches. Whitney Mu.seiim of .\merican .\rt. 
New Yoriv.; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.853 

..-.<...-.<-i-.; 'Ml p .<. 6«kv?^J',> 


163. Room ill Brooklyn, ifis^- Oil on canvas. 29 x 34 inches. Courtesy of the Museum of Fine Arts. Boston; Charles Henry Havden Fund. 

PI. 164. French Six-Day Bicycle Ridei, 1937. Oil on canvas. 17 . 19 inches. Collection of Mr. and 
Mrs. Albert Hackett. 

PI. 1G5. Drawing for painting, French Six-Day Bicycle Rider. 1937. 
Contc on paper. 7')4 x Sl-j inches. Whitney Museum of American .\rt. 
New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.451 


PI. 166. Suiniueitiiiie, 1943. Oil on canvas, 29% x 44 inches. Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington: Gift of Dora Sexton Brown. 

(■'"^ '■^h~' 

PI. 167. Drawing for painting. Summertime, 1943. Conte on paper. 
8% X 11% inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, New \ork: 
Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.460 

/^iXf^l-- ''^-/'y-^ 

PI. 168. Drawing for painting. Summertime, 1943. Conte on paper, 
814 X 1 1 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.458 


PI. 169. Pennsyh'ania Coal Town. 1947. Oil on canvas, 28 \ 40 inches. The Butler Iiisiiiute of .American .Art, \'oungstown, Ohio. 

V PI. 170. Drawing for painting, Peuusylvania Coal Tou'u, 1947. Conte 

and pencil on paper, 11% x 15 inches. Whitney Museum of .American 
,_^ .Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.229 



Hopper's interest in boats began loith his childhood in Nyack, 
New York, then a prosperous Hudson River port with a thriv- 
ing shipyard. At the age of fifteen, he built himself a catboat 
and later he considered a career as a naval architect. His en- 
thusiasm for nautical subjects continued throughout his life, al- 
though he eventually gave up sailing because his wife insisted 
he was too good a ?nan to lose that way. 

PI. 171. [Sailing], c. 1900. Ink on paper, 5% x 8% inches. Whitney 
Museum of .American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1553.77 

PI. 172. Tramp Steamer, igo8. Oil on canvas, 20 X 29 inches. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture (.anleii, Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 



Pl. 173. Bow of Beam Trawler, 1923. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Collection of Mr. and Mrs, 
Malcolm Cliace. 

I'l. 174. [ J wo Irawlcrs\, 1923-24. \Vatercolor on paper, 13% x 19% inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1091 


PI. 175. The Bootleggers, 1925. Oil on canvas, 30 x 38 inches. The Cunicr (iallciy of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire. 


PI. 176. Beam Trawler Teale, 1926. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 
inches. Miinson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Museum of Art, Utica, 
New York: Gift of Mr. Fred L. Palmer. 

PI. 177. Beam Trawler Osprey, c. 192(3. Watercolor on paper. 14 v 20 
inches. Private collection. 

PI. 178. Trawlei and Telegraph Pole, 192(5. Waleicolor 011 p.ipcr, 14 
ton University; The Laura P. Hall Memorial Collection. 

iijvs intlics. I'lic .\it Museum. Prince- 


PI. 179. Gloucester Harbor, 1926. Watercolor on paper, 19V) > 14 inches. Munson-VVilliains-l'ioctor Insti- 
tute, Museum of Art, Utica, New York; Property of John B. Root. 

PI. 180. Thr Diiry. 1929. Watercolor on paper, 14 
City, Missouri; Gift of Mrs. Louis Sosland. 

20 inches. Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum, Kansas 


PI. iSi. [Boiuyard], 1934-38. Wateicolor on paper, 137/, , '>o u.chcs. Wlutncv Mu.seum of American .\rt 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1111 

».-*2g**-^:^'*- ..^igl^ te' ^ja ^*> »,'4s^^'^V*>^j»>v»> ^i^ ft j^^^ .'•-•-*<€.'* V--***«^>^>.-K - -^H^i^vS^. 




PI. .82. [Docked Freighter and Tugboat], 1934-38. Watcrtolor on paper, x?^^^ x 20 inches. Whitney Mu 
seum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1095 





PI. 183. Yawl Ridiiii; a Sircll, 1935. W'atercolor on paper, aoi/i^j ,< 28I4 inches. W'oiCfstci Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts. 


PI. 184. The Long Leg, 1935. Oil on canvas, 20 x 30 inches. Virginia Steele Scott Foundation, Pasadena. 

PI. 1H5. Crtiinnl Sxcell. i9'>(). Oil on canvas, 36 x f)" iiulus. Corioi.ui (..illen ol An. Washington, D.C: The 
VVillianr A. Clark Fund. 


PI. i86. The Lee Shore, 1941. Oil on canvas, ;;iSi,4 X 43 inches. I'lualc collccLi 

PI. 187. Tlie Mailliii Mikcun tij Wvllfleet, 1944. Oil on canvas. 32 x 50 inclus. I'ii\au- 


As early as his student period, Hopper's love of the sea drexv 
him to the dramatically stark architecture of lighthouses. His 
paintings from Cape Ann and Monhegan Island include ligJit- 
houses, but his best paintings of this subject were done in Cape 
Elizabeth, Maine, during the late ic)20S. 

' ' .li'i \> ■■ 


PI. 188. [lAglithouse], c. 1900. Pen and ink on paper, 4!/^ x 6 inches. 
Whitney Mii.seum of American Art, New ^'ork; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1561.31 ^ 

PI. 189. [Lighthouse], r. i9i(). Oilon hoard, 9I/2 X 11; ^ , inches. Pi i\ate lolli-ction. 


PI. 190. Light at Two Lights, c. 1927. Watercolor on paper. 131540 y 20 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1094 

PL igi. Light at Two Lights, 1927. ^Vatercolor on pa] 
gomery, Alabama. 

)rr. I I . 20 

inches. Collection of Blount. Inc.. Mont- 


PI. 192. Light at Two /Jglits, 1927. Conte and charcoal on jxiper, 15 
X 22i,4(! inches, ^\'hitncy Musenm of .American Art, \ew ^■ork; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.683 

PI. 193. Lightlwuse Hill. 1927. Oil on canvas, 28I4 x 39I/4 inches. Dallas .Museum of I iiie .\rts: Gift of Mr. and .Mrs. .Mauriie Purnell. 


PI. 194. Tlie Lighthouse at Two Lights, 1929. Oil on canvas, agi/i x 431-4 inches. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Hugo Kastor 
Fund, 1962. 

PI. 195. Light at Two Lights, 1927. W'atcrrolor on paper, igi-^e x 
5 i9'y](; inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New \ork: Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1143 


Hopfycr Spent the summer of 1^12 in Gloucester, Massachusetts, a quaint AVif England coastal village which appealed to many 
artists. It was also in Gloucester, during the summer of rozf. that he first made the watercolors xchich initially won him recog- 
nition as a painter. He and Jo returned there in 792./ for Ihrir honcyiuoon. In /92.V tlicy again summered there, and Hopper 
painted Prospect Street, one of the few watercolors that he ciicr used as a study for an oil. 

PI. 196. Italian Quarter, (Gloucester, 191?. Oil on canvas,- 23% x 281/4 inches. Whitncx .\Iuscinn of .\mcrican Art. New York: Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1214 


PI. 197. The Mansard Roof, 1923. ^Vatercolo^ on paper, 13% x 19 inches. The Brooklyn Museum, New \ork. 

PL 198. Dead Tnc^ (.loucesltr, 1923. Wateicuhn uii pdper, 13 x 19 PI. 11)9. House with Iciicc, \q2'^. Watercolor on paper, 1 !34 .; 18 
inches. Private collection. inches. Collection of George M. Irwin. 


PI. 200. Haskell's House, 1924. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Private collecti 

PI. 201. Parkliurst House (CUijildiii's House). 1924. Watercolor on paper, \^y, x 19 inches. Private collection. 


PI. 202. Rocks at the lort, Gloucester, 1924. Watercolor on paper, i3'44 x 19% inches. Collection 
of Mr. and Mrs. Alvin L. Snowiss. 

PI. 203. Universalist Church, Gloucester, i92(i. Wati milor on paper, 14 x 19% inches. The .Art 
Museum, Princeton University; The Laura P. Hall .Memorial Collection. 





f ', 





s ^ 

' -, 



PI. 204. [W'liite House mill Dormer Window], c. 1926-28. \Vatercolor on paper, 11% x 1^ inches. Whitney .Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1154 

PI. 205. [Cars and Jl(Hks\. c. 1927. Watercolor on paper, 13% x 20 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Request of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1104 

I'l. 20G. [Rocky Cove Il\, c. 1927. W'atertolor on paper, igi";!,; x 20 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of 
Josephine .\. Hopper. 70.1139 


PI. 207. Gloucester Houses, 1928. Watercolor 
on paper, 16 x 22 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 208. Adam's House. 1928. Watercolor on paper, if) 
Museum, Kansas; The Roland P. Murdock Collection. 

-, inches. Courtesy of the Wichita Art 


PI. 2og. Prospect Strcel, Gloucester, 1928. Watercolor on paper, 14 . 20 inches. Private collection. 


PI. 2.0. Sun on Prospect Street, .934. Oil on canvas. 28 y 36 inches. The Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio; The Edwin and \'irRinia Irwin 


In /955, Hopper roiuincntcd on his early work as n commercial illustrator. "I was 
always interested in arcliilecture, but the editors wanted people waving tlieir 
arms." He painted and sketched buildings throughout his life, often preferring 
them over other subject /natter. 

PI. 211. Drawing for painting. [Stairway], 
c. 1925. Conte on paper, 1914 x 12% inches. 
Whitney Museum of .Xnierican Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 212. [.V/n/ra'flv]. c. 1925. Oil on ^vood. 16 
X 11% inches. Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art. New ^■ork: Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1265 


PI. 213. House ii'ith Bay Window, 1925. Watercolor on paper, 15 v 20 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 214. [Victorian House], 1925-27. Watercolor on paper, 13% x 19% inches. Whitnev Museum of American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1432 


PI. 215. Hniinted House. ii)_'(i. W'ateicolor on paper, 14 x an inches. William .\. rarnswoilli Library anc 
Art .Museum. Rockland. Maine. 

PI. 216. [Small Toicn Slret-I], t. i9i;6-28. \V'atercolor on p. qui. \'>,'/<^ PI. 217. Custom House, Portland. 11(27, Watcnolm on ]ia]n'r. i;)-' 

X 20 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New ^ork: Bequest igi^ inches. Wadsworth .\thencuni, Hartford, Coiniecticut. 

of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1125 


PI. 21S. Hixlghiu'f. House, (Uijif hni. Miisvichuull\, kjl'S. Oil on canvas, 28 >. <jfi inches. Pri\'atc collectii 
Gallery, New \ork. 

iicsy of .Andrew Crispo 


PI. 220. Coast Guard Slatiun, 1929. Oil 011 cainas, 29 ^ 43 inches, the MoiUclaii Ait Museum. Montclair, New Jersey. 


PI. 219. Salem, 1929. Conte on paper, 15 x s^t/iq inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.307 

PI. 221. Methodist Church, Provincetown, 1930. Watercolor on paper. 
25 X 20 inches. Wadsworth Atheneum. Hartford, Connecticut: The 
Ella Gallup .Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection. 


PI. 222. Captain Kelly's House, 1931. Watercolor on paper, 2(1 . -ps imlus. Whimcv Mu- 
seum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 160 

PI. 223. Marshall's House, 1932. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. VVadswortli Athcneuni. Hartford, 



PI. 224. Cold Storage Plant, 1933. Watercolor on paper, 20 x 25 
inches. The Fogg Mu.seum of Art, Harvard University, Cambridge, 

PI. 225. House on Pamet River, 1934. Watercolor on paper, 20 x 25 inches. Whitney Museui 
of American Art, New York. 36.20 


PI. 226. [I'illage Church], c. i<),'54-35. VVatercolor on paper. i9V> v 25 inches. Whitney Museui 
of American Art, New York: Hequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.1086 

PI. 227. Vermont Sugar House, 1938. Watercolor on paper, i;ji{> x igYj inches. Collection of 
Harrison Investments. 


PI. 228. Pretty I'nui\. i<i;;i|. (hi on c.iii\as, _■() . ju urIrv Siiiiih t;i)lkt;c Miisiuin ot An. Noi I liampton, Massachusetts. 








-r" 'Ti) il .-^^''Trmi. 

PI. 22g. Drawing for painting, Pretty Penny, 1939. Contc on paper 
10^ X 16 inches. Whitnev .Museum of .Anieiicaii Art, New ^ ork: Be- 
quest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.983 

PI. 230. Drawing for painting. Pretty Penny, 1939. Cioiite on paper. 
loy, X 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American .\rt. New Nolle; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.()Hi 

184 ARClin liCTURE 

PI. 231. Tii'o Puritans, 1945. Oil on canvas, 30 < 40 inches. Private collection. 


Hopper was fascinated with cities. fro7n Paris— wliicli lie once 
described as "graceful"— to "the raw disorder of New York." 
For most of the year Next' York ZLias his home, the environment 
which inspired him. In the city, he found the settings and 
moods for some of liis most poignant paintings. 

PI. 2312. Queetisboyough liridge, 1913. Oil on canvas, 25V2 x 37% 
inches. Whitney Museum of .American .Art, New ^'ork: Request of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 184 

I'l. 233. \eic York Corner or l.urner Saloon. 11)13. ^''' "" i'in\;is. 2} 
-Modern .\rt, New York; .Abby Aldrich Rockefeller lund. 

;() inches. The Nfusciini of 

i86 cnvscAPES 

PI. L'ji. )<iukfis (11 Sutniiiri Street. 1916. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Whitney Mu- 
seum of .\inericau Ait, New \ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1215 

PI. 235. Park Entrance, c. 1918-20. Oil on canvas, 
24 X 29 inches. Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 


PI. 236. East River, c. 1920-23. Oil on canvas. 32 X 46 inclics. Pii\atc tolkction 



r 'BBH 

PI. 237. Xew York Pavements, 1924. Oil on canvas. 24 x 29 inches. Chrysler Museum at Xorfolk, \'irginia; on loan from the collection of 
Walter P. Chrysler, Jr. 


, .! 




, 1 





'- - ' 



- ^^I^B 




PL 238. Skyline. Xcar IVashington Square, 1925. Watercolor on paper. 1,1 ,,, 1 
Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Museum of .\it, Utica, New York; Edward \V. Root 



k.-,.' ....i^l^'^'^"-''^*^'^-*^''^:,**'""'^^ 1 Ijf' 

W^ I' 




PI. 239. [/?or;//o/),s|. I. i()2(). Watercolor on papci. I'i'ir. -<> inclics. 
Whitney Museum of .American .Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1114 

PI. 240. M(uih(iN)iii Bridge iinil I il\ Apartments, 1926. Watercolor on 
paper, 1314 x 19% inches. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Joel Harnett. 


PI. 241. The City. 1927. Oil on canvas. 28 x 36 inches. Univeisitv (if Arizona. Museum of Art, Tucson. Arizona. 


PI. 242. Drug Store, 1927. Oil on canvas, 29 x 40 inches. Courtesy of the \Iuscmii of I inc \ils, Hostcin; Bccjiust of |ohn 1 , Spauldi 


PI. 243. From Williamsburg Bridge, 1928. Oil on cam as. 21) . 
Museum of Art. New York; George A. Hcarn Fund. 

)'i indies. I lie Metropolitan 

PI. 244. Drawing for painting, From Williams- « 
burg Bridge, 1928. Contc on paper, 814 x 
iii^G inches. Whitney Museum of American 
An, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.457 

PI. 245. Blackwell's Island, 1928. Oil on (.anvas, 35 / fif) inches. Private collection. 


PI. 246. Drawing for painting, lilackwell's j 

Island, 1928. Conte on paper, loi^fi x 14 " 

inches. Whitney Museum of .American .Art, ^ 

New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper, j 



PI. 247. Manhattan Bridge Loop, 1928. Oil 011 canvas. 35 x 60 inches. Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Ancio\er, Massachu- 
setts; Gift of Mr, Stephen C. Clark. 

194 cnvscAPES 

PL 248. East Wind Over Weeliawken, 1934. Oil on canvas, 24I4 x 5014 inches. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Academy 
of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia: Collections Fund Purchase. 

PI. 249. Drawing for painting, East Wind Over Weehawkcn, 1934. 
Conte on paper, 10 y 14 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.252 

PI. 250. Drawing for painting, East Wind Over Weclunrkeii. 193). 
Conte and pencil on paper, 10 v 14 inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.250 


PI. 251. Macomb's Dam liridge, 1935. Oil on canvas. 35 x Go inches. The Biuoklvn Museum, New ^()Ik, 

PI. 252. Drawing for painting, Macomb's Dnm 
Bridge, 1935. Conte on paper, 8% x 2314 inches. 
Whitney Museum of .American Art, New "Sork; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.440 

■f^ % 

PI. 253. Drawing for painting, Maco/nb's Dam Bridge, 1935. Pencil 
on paper, 9I4 x 18I4 inches. Whitney Museum of .American .\rt. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.990 


PI. 254. Bridle Patli. 1939. Oil 011 canvas, 28 x 42 inches. San I'rancisco Museum of Modern Art: Anonymous Gift. 

PI. 256. Drawing for painting. Bridle Path, 
1939. Contc on paper, 8% x 1 1% inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.463 

PI. 257. Drawing for painting. Bridle Path, 
1939. Contc on paper, 221/4g x 15 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.857 

PI. 255. Drawing for painting. Bridle Path. 
1939. Conte on paper, 8% x 1 1% inches. Whit- 
ney Museiuii of American Art. New \'ork: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.219 


PI. 258. August in the City, 1945. Oil on can\as, 23 ,., 30 inches. Noilon (.alien <iii(l Sclmnl ot Art. West Palm Beach, 11 

PI. 259. Drawing for painting. August in the City, 1945. Conte on 
paper, 814 x 1 1 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.456 


Hopper frequently traveled in America and Mexico, seekini:^ 
inspiration. In so doing, he became interested in the psycliology 
and environment of travelers— in hotels, motels, trains. Iiigh- 
ways, and filling stations. These became the haunting themes 
of many of his paintings. 

PL 260. [Steam Engine; Railroad of New Jersey], c. 1896. Pencil on 
paper, 8 x 10 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1553.1 1 

PI. afii. The El Station, 1908. Oil (ui c.nnas, i:<j 

^9 iiicliLS. W'hitiKN .Museum oi AiikiRiUI Ail, New ^(Jik; l>«|Ucst of jo.stplniic \. Hopper. 


PI. 262. Railroad Train, 1908. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Addison Gallery of American 
Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts; Gift of Dr. Fred T, Murphy. 

PI. 263. Railroad Crossing, c. 1922-23. Oil on canvas, 29 x 39% inches. Whitncv Museum of 
American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1189 


PI. 264. House by the Railroad. 1925. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. The Museum of .Modern .Art, New \ork. 


PI. 2(15. I.ime R(Hk Riiilioad, Rockland. Maine, igafi. W'ateicolor on paper, 14 v 19% inches. The An 
Museum, Princeton University: The Laura P. Hall Memorial Collection. 

PI. a(j(). Railroad Crossing, igiCi. W'alercolor on paper, 13I;, -. igi^ mciies. I'nvatc collection. 



PI. 267. freight Cars, Gloucester, 1928. Oil on canvas, 29 < 40 inches. Addison Gallery of .American An. Phillips .\cademy. .\ndover, Mas- 
sachusetts; Gift of Edward \V. Root. 


PI. 268. Xew York, Xeir Haven, and Hartford, 1931 

Oil on canvas, 32 x 50 inches. Indianapolis Museum of .Art; Emma Harter Sweetser 


PI. 269. Hotel Room, 1931. Oil on canvas, 60 x 65 inches. Thyssen-Borncniisza Collection. 


PL 270. High Road, 1931. Watercolor on paper, 20 x 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1163 

;8 inches. Whitney Museum of .Vmerican Art, 

PI. 271. Box Car, Freight Car at Truro, 1931. Watercolor, 1334 x 19% inches. Private collection 


PI. 272. Conijiartiiient C, Car 2g-;, 1938. Oil on cainas, 20 . iS inches. IBM Corporation, .\rnionk. New \'ork. 


PI. 273. Drawing for painting, Compartment C, Car 295, 1938. Conte 
on paper, 8 x 10% inches. \Vhitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.431 


PI. 274. Drawing for painting. Compartment 
C, Car 29_j, 1938. Conte on paper, 15146 x 22 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 


I'l. 275. (.<i\, ujjo. Oil on canvas, 2614 x 4014 inches. The Museum of Modern Art, New York; Mrs. Simon Guggenheim lund. 




PI. 276. Drawing for painting. Gas, 1940. Conte on paper, 8% x 11% 
inches. Whitney Museum of .American .Art, New York: Bequest of 
Josephine N. Hopper. 70.225 

PI. 277. Drawing for painting, 1940. Conte antl charcoal with touches of white paint on 
paper. 15 y 22% inches. Wiiilncs .Museum of .American .Art. New \'ork; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.349 


PI. 278. Route 6, Eastham, 1941. Oil on canvas, 27 x 38 inches. Sheldon Swope Art Gallery. Terre Haute. Indiana. 

PI. 279. Drawing for painting. Route 6, FMstham. 1941. Conte on PI. 280. Drawing for painting, Route 6, Easthnin, 1941. Contc on 
paper, loi/. x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New paper, 1014 x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American .\rt. New 
York; liequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.445 York; Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.330 


PI. 281. Dawn in Pennsylvania, 1942. Oil on canvas, 24^/^ x 44% inches. Private collection. 

PL 282. Drawing for painting, Dawn in Penn- 
sylvania, 1942. Conte on paper, 15 x 22% 
inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 


PL 283. Hotel Lobby, 1943. Oil on canvas, 3214 x 40% inches. Indianapolis Museum of Art; William Ray Adams Memorial Collection. 


PI. 284. Drawing for painting. Hotel Lobby, 1943. Conte on paper. 
81/^ X II inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.117 

PI. 285. Drawing for painting. Hotel Lobby, 1943. Conte and pencil 
on paper, 814 x n inches. Whitney Museum of American .^rt, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.116 

PI. 287. Drawing for painting, Hotel Lobby, 1943. Conte on paper, 
15 X 22 inches. \Vhitney Museum of American .Art. New 'S'ork; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.839 

PI. 286. Drawing for painting, Hotel Lobby, 1943. Conte on paper, 
15 X 22% inches. Whitney Museum of .\merican Art. New ^'ork; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.996 


PI. 288. Solitude, 1944. Oil on canvas, 32 x 50 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 289. Drawing for painting. Solitude, 1944. Conte on paper, isi/ir, 
X 22^^ inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Be- 

quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.855 


PL 290. Rooms for Tourists, 1945. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Yale Universitv Ait Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut: Bequest of Stephen 
Carlton Clark, B.A., 1903. 


PI. 291. Drawing for painting, Rooms for 
Tourists, 1945. Conte and charcoal on paper. 
ich^x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of .Amer- 
ican .Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.438 

PI. 292. Drawing for painting. Rooms foi 
Tourists, 1945. Conte on paper, 15 x 22i/4 
inches. Whitney Museum of -American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

;■) I- 


PI. 293. Drawing for painting. Rooms for 
Tourists, 1945. Conte on paper, 10% x 16 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York: Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 



9^5 I^^W 

I'l. 294. Approaching a City, 1946. Oil on canvas, 27 x 36 inches. Ihc Phillips Collection. Washington. D.C. 

PI. 295. Drawing for painting, Approaching a City, 1946. Contc on 
paper. ifiMe < --^^ inches. \Vhitnev Musemn of .Xmerican Art. New 
^'ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.869 


PI. 296. Four Lane Road, 1956. Oil on canvas, 2714 x 41I/2 i"ches. Private collection. 


PI. 297. Hotrl hy II Railroad, 1952. Oil on cainus, 'ji . 40 inches, nirshhoin Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution. Wash- 
ington, D.C. 


PI. 298. Drawing for painting, Hotel by a Railroad, 1952. Contc on 
paper, 13 x 19 inches. Whitney Museum of American .Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.427 

PI. 299. Drawing for painting, Hotel by a Railroad, 1952. Conte on 
paper, 19 x n^'jii; inches. Whitney Museum of .American ."Krt, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.874 

j^i.t. /.„ /'■'^ tj'' 


PI. 300. Hotel Window, 1956. Oil on canvas, 40 x 55 inches. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection. 

■ ,^-^1' 

I j !fi 



PI. 301. Drawing for painting, Hotel Window, 1956. Conte and pencil 
on paper, 81^ x 1 1 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.161 


PI. 302. Western Motel, 1957. Oil on canvas, 3014 x 50% inches. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut; Bequest of Stephen 
Carlton Clarke, B.A., 1903. 



PI. 303. Canal at Charenton, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23% x 2814 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1246 

PI. 304. Road and Trees, 1962. Oil on canvas, 34 x 60 inches. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel W. Dietrich II. 


PI. 305. Chair Car, 1965. Oil on canvas, 40 x 50 inches. Private collection. 


Although he rarely painted oils on his travels. Hopper pro- 
(hieed many watercolors whicli recorded specific locales. Often 
choosing unusual subject matter rather than the sights that 
rnight appeal to the average tourist, he conveyed a sense of 
place with an individual vision. 

PL 306. [St. Michael's College, Surita Fe], 1925. Wateicoloi on paper, 
13% X igi^G inches. Wliitney Museum of American Art, New "Sork; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1158 

PI. 307. [/(/()/« s mid Shed. AV-rc Mf\ii(i\. 1925. Watcrcolor on papci", 13"^ y \(}T'y^,; inches. Whitncv Mu- 
seum of American Art, New \ork; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1121 


PL 308. Adobe Houses, 1925. Watercolor on paper, 13% x 19% inches. Private collection. 


PI. 309. [Railroad Trestle in the Desert], 1925. Watercolor on paper, 
'3^%6 X 9% inches. Whitney Museum of American .Art, New York: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1099 

PI. 310. St. Francis Tmcer, Santa Fe. 1925. WattKolor on paper, x^Ml 
X igi'a inches. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. 


PI. 311. [Cabin. Cliin Irshni . S.C.], 1929. Watercolor on paper, isI-Vki ■ i9'%g "ichcs. Whitney Museur 
of American Art. New \ork; Bequest of |osephine N. Hopper. 70.1147 

PI. 312. Drawing for watercolor, {Cabin, Charleston, S.C], 1929. Contc on paper, 15 x 221/16 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New ^oric; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.670 


PI. 313. Baptistry of Saint John's. 1929. Watercolor on paper, 13% x 19% inches. Private collection. 

PI. 314. Drawing for painting, Baptistry of Saint John's, 
1929. Conte on paper, 22% x 15 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New "iork; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.302 


PI. 315. Charleston Doorway, 1929. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 316. [The Battery, Charleston, S.Ci\, 1929. Watercolor on paper. 
13% X i9'%f, inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1145 

PI. 317. [House u'itli leraiida, Charleston, .S'.C], ic)2g. Watercolor on 
paper, 13% x 20 inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1146 


PL 318. White River at Sharon, 1937. Watercolor on paper, 19% x 27I4 inches. The Sara Roby Founda- 
tion, New York. 

PI. 319. Sugar Maple, 1938. Watercolor on paper, 14 > 20 inches. Private collection. 


PI. 320. [Roofs, Saltillo, Mexico], 1946. Watercolor on paper, 21 x 29 inches. Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1162 

PI. 321. El Palaciu, 1946. Watercolor on paper, 20% x 28% inches. Whitney Museum of .American .Art, 
New Yoric. 50.2 


PI. 322. Carolina Morning, 1955. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Whitney Museum of .\merican Art, New York; Given in memory of Otto L. 
Spaeth by his family. 67.13 


ri. 3:^3. California Hills. 1957. Watcrcolor on paper, zi]-^ ■ 29(4 incius. Hallinaik Coilci lum. Hallmark Cards, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri. 


From childhood, Hopper was fascinated with the interaction of people in restaurants. 
He later developed this theme, achieving a diversity of moods through light, composi- 
tion, and the figures he depicted. 

PI. 326. New York Restaurant, c. 1922. Oil on canvas, 24 
Muskegon, Michigan. 

30 inches. Hackley Art Museum, 


PI. 324. [Restaurant Scene], 1894. Pencil on paper, 5x8 inches. 
ney Museum of American Art, New ^'ork; Bequest of Joseph) 
Hopper. 70.1561.161 

ne N. 




1 1 

PI. 325. [Landlady and Boarders], c. 1900. Pen and ink on 
paper, 1 i%x 14U inches. ^Vhitney Museum of .American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1566.146 


PI. 327. Automat, 1927. Oil on canvas, 28% x 36 inches. Des Moines Art Center. Iowa; James D. Edmnndsoii Fund. 1958. 


PI. 328. Chop Suey, 1929. Oil on canvas. 32!^ x 38% inches. Collection of Rarney A. Ebsworth. 


PI. 329. Tables for Ladies. hj'JO. Oil on canvas, 4X1^ . C^o\^ iiulus. I lie Metropolitan Museum of Art. New \ori<.: George .\. Fleam riincl. 



PI. ^^o. Sunlight in a Cafeteria, 1958. Oil on cainas. [d^ (loi,^ iiulics. \alc I'liiversity Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut. 


Hopper's love of thcnler began in i hililliood—lie hi.s 
sister in staging puppet shows and plays at home. Encouraged 
by his teacher Robert Henri to attend theatrical performances. 
Hopper later xvent to movies or plays as an escape, ivhen he 
found himself unable to paint. 

4 C «.<• lATl 

PI. 331. Acrobats, c. 1898-99. Pencil on paper, 5 x 7Ww inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1553.21 


PI. 334. Before the Footlights, c. 1900. Pen and ink on paper, i4i%r, 
X 5% inches. Whitney Museum of American .\rt. New ^'o^k; Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1558.82 

PI. 332. [Harlequin and Lady in Evening Dress], c. 1900. Watercolor 
on illustration board, 14^0 x 10% inches. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New \ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1629 


PI. 333. [Satan in Red], 1900. Oil on lio.iid. 1214 x 914 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of .American .Art, New \ork: Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.1419 

PI. 335. [Solitary Figure in a Theatre], c. 1902-4. Oil on board, 12% 
X 9%6 inches. Whitney Museum of American .Art, New ^'ork; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1418 

PI. 336. Anno Domini XIXCV, 1905. Conte on paper, i8i^ x 24 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American .Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1532 

PI. 337. [Ibsen: At the Theatre], 1900-1906. Pencil 
and wash on illustration board, 22 x '5 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of .American .Art, New York; Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1355 


PI. 338. Tu'o on the Aisle, ig'-i-j. Oil on canvas, 4014 x 481-4 inches. The Toledo Museum of Art; Gift of Edward Druminond Libbey. 


PI- 339- The Circle Theatre, 1936. Oil on canvas, 27 x 36 inches. Private collection. 



PI. 340. New York Movie, 1939. Oil on canvas, 32% x 401,^ Indies. The .Museum of Modern Art, New \n\k 


PI. 341. Drawing for painting, New York Movie, 1939. Conte on paper, 
•5% X 7% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.447 

PI. 343. Drawing for painting. New York Movie, 1939. Conte on 
paper. 11 x 15 inches. ^Vhitney Museum of American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.272 

■■^^^ X ^ jp^^ j--^',j, ^_^ 

PI. 342. Drawing for painting. New York Movie; Palace, 1939. Conte 
on paper, 8% x 1 1% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
^'ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.111 


PI. 344. The Sheridan Theatre. 1937. Oil on canvas, 17 x 25 inches. The Newark Museum, New Jersey: I'urchase 1940, Felix Bequest Fund. 


PI. 345. Drawing for painting, Tlic Sheridan Theatre, 1936-37. Conte on paper, 4I4 x 7% inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.958 

PI. 346. Drawing for painting. The Sheridan Theatre, 1936-37. Conte on paper, 4I/, x 7% inches. Whitnev Museum 
of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.963 


PL 347. Girlie Show, 1941. Oil on canvas, 32 x 38 inches. Private collection. 



PI. 348. Drawing for painting. Girlie Show, 1941. Conte on paper. 
13I4 X 15 inches. Whitney Museum of .\merican .Art. New ^'ork; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.295 

y / 

PI. 349. Drawing for painting. Girlie Show, 1941. Conte on paper, 
22% X 15^/46 inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.301 



I'l. 350. riiit Roiv Orchestra, 1951. Oil on canvas. 31 x 40 inches. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture C.arclen. Smithsonian Institution, Wasli- 
ington, D.C. 

PI. 351. Drawing for painting, First Row Orchestra, 1951. Conte on 
paper, 17I/1G x 2o"/ii; inches. Whitney Museum of ./Vmerican Art. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.841 


PI. 352. Intermission, 1963. Oil on canvas, 40 x 60 inches. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Morris B. Pelavin. 


:^^«W»>UJ , _ _^ _ 

PI- 353- Two Comedians, 1965. Oil on canvas. 29 . 40 inches. Piivatc collection. 


PL 354. Drawing for painting. Two Comedians. 1965. Charcoal on 
paper, 8% x 1 1 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 355, Drawing for painting. Two Comedians, 1965. Charcoal on 
paper, 8i^ x n inches. Private collection. 


Beginning in ipi2. Hopper depicted many offices as an illustrator for System maga- 
zine. Later, as part of his observations of city life, he found the office an intriguing 
setting, althougli it is an unusual subject for paintings. 

PL 356. Office at Night, 1940. Oil on canvas, 22!-^ x 25 inches. \Valkei Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota; Gift of the T. B. \V'alker Foundation. 


PI. 357. Drawing for painting. Office at Night, 
1940. Conte on paper, 814 x 1 1 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.168 

PI. 358. Drawing for painting. Office at Night. 
1940. Conte and charcoal with touches of 
white paint on paper, 151^ x 18% inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 359. Drawing for painting. Office at Night, 
1940. Conte and charcoal with touches of 
white paint on paper, 15 x 19% inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, New York: 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.340 




PI. 360. Coyiference at Night, 1949. Oil on canvas, 2^% x 40 inches. Courtesy of the Wichita Art Museum, Kansas; The Roland I'. Murdock 


PI. 361. Drawing for painting. Conference at Night, 1949. Conte on paper, 8I4 y 11 inches. Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New 'Sork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.172 

PI. 362. Drawing for painting. Conference at Night, 1949. Conte on paper, 15 x 22 inches. Whitney Museum 
of American Art. New ^■ork: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.842 


PI. 363. Office in a Small City, 1953. Oil on canvas, 28 x 40 inches. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; George \. Hearii Iiiiul. 


PI. 364. New York Office, 1962. Oil on canvas, 40 x 55 inches. Collection of Rlount. Inc., Montgomery, Alabama. 

PI. 365. Drawing for painting, New York Office, 1962. Pencil on 
paper, 81/4 x n inches. Whitney Museum of .American .Art, New 
Vork: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.822 



Hopper sometimes focused an two people encountering one another, conveying effectively their anxiety or dismay. He luas a 
romantic at heart, but at the same time a pessimist ivho felt that others rarely measure up to one's ideal. 

PL 366. Room in New York, iQyj. Oil on canvas, sg ^ 36 inches. F. M. Hall Collection; University of Xeliraska Art Galleries. Lincoln. 




367. Suiiuiier Evening, 1947. Oil on canvas, 30 x 42 

nil III ^ I I >i 

n of Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney. 


PL 368. Summer in the City, 1949. Oil on canvas, 20 x 30 inches. Berry-Hill Galleries. Inc., New ^ ork. 



PI. 369. Seawatchers, 1952. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Private collection. 


PI. 370. Siajlia^ht on Brownstones, 1956. Oil on canvas. ag'Ji x 39-4 inches. Courtesy of the Wichita Art Museum, Kansas; The Roland 1' 
Murdock Collection. 




PI. 371. Exciinion into Philosophy. 1959. Oil on can\as, 30 X 40 inches. Private collection. 


Hopper always loved military history, and as a child often made drawings and cut- 
out figures of soldiers. As an illustrator and etcher he also depicted soldiers of several 
nationalities and eras. His interest later focused on the Civil War and he returned to 

this subject for several paintings. 

PI. 373. Dairn Before Citlysburg, 1934. Oil on caiuiis, 15 . -o inches. l'ii\atc culkctidii. 


PI. 372. Soldiers in ]\'agon, i8g6. Pencil on paper. 7% x 10 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American .\rt, New York: Bequest of Josephine 
N. Hopper. 70.1554.14 


PI. 374. Drawing for painting. Dawn Before Gettysburg, 1934. Conte 
on paper. 711/10 x n inches. Whitncv Museum of .American .Art. New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.424 


fig^ftiJ ffffi^tfi ~ 

PI. 375. Light Battery at Gettysburg. 1940. Oil on canvas, 18 x 27 inches. Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum, Kansas City, Missouri; Gift of the 
Friends of Art. 

PI. 376. Drawing for painting. Light Battery at Gettysburg, 1940. 
Conte on paper, i^y^ x ioVs inches. Whitney Museum of /\merican 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.425 



Hopper repeatedly represented dijjereiit times of day, eiiipliasiziiig mood through the riaryini;^ effects of liglit. Often, he even 
entitled his painting with specific hours. In his use of time as an expression of mood. Hopper was probably inspired by French 
Symbolist literature. 

PI. '578. Soir Bleu, 1914. Oil on canvas, 36 x 7^ 

inches. Whitney Museum of Aniciicaii Ait, New N'oik; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 




PI. 377. [Studies of Light on Portrait Heads], 
c. 1903. Pencil on paper, 10 x 8 inches. Whit- 
ney Museum of American .^rt. New V'ork; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1553.78 

PI. 379. Un Maquereau (drawing for paint- 
ing, Soir Bleu), 1914. Conte on paper, 10 x 
8% inches. Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New ^ork: Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.318 


PI. 380. Moonlight Interior, 1921-113. Oil 011 canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Private collection. 

PI. 381. Xight l\'i)idoiVi, 1928. Oil on canvas, 29 x 34 inches. The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York; Gift of John Hay Whitney. 


PI. 38-'. Railroad Sunscl. itjiig. Oil on canvas, 281/2 x 47% inches. \\'hitney .Museum of .Vinerican .\it, New York; Bequest of Josephine X. 
Hopper. 70.1170 


Pi. 383. Early Sunday Motiiino^ 11)30, Oil on canvas, 35 x <)() iuLlus. Whitney Museum of Aniciican Ail. New \oik. 31.426 


PI. 384. JJouif at Dusk, 1935. Oil on canvas, 36 x 50 inches. \'iiginia Museum of line Aits, Riclnnond, X'irginia. 


PI. 385. live .I.M., L. 1937. Oil on canvas, i;-, . ;{() inches. Courtesy of tlie Wichita Ait Museiun, Kansas; 1 he Roland P. Muidock Collection. 





1 ■< 








^^^ '"^■*- •■V-fe—l— ^^.,:- :.-.-»l l« -I^P^^ 

__- ^ 




— __^^^«!iaL- 

PI. gSI). \iglilluiii<l!s. 1942. Oil on canvas, 3314 X (ioi/i inches. Tlic Art Inslitntc of C;liicago; Friends of American An. 

PI. 387. Drawing for painting, Xighthawks. 
1942. Conte on paper, 7-% x 14 inches. Col- 
lection of Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Blum. 


PI. 388. Seven A.M., 1948. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. 50.8 


PI. 389. Sluikcspeare at Dusk, 1935. Oil on can\as. 17 v 25 inches. Collection of John .Astor. 


PI. 390. Drawing for painting, Shakespeare at Dusk. 1935. Conte on 
paper, Svs x n'-s inches. Whitney Miisciini of .American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.281 

PI. 391. Drawing for painting. Shakespeare at Dusk, 1935. Pencil on 
paper, 414 x 7% inches. Whitney Miiseinn of American .\rt. New 
York; Bequest of [osephiiie \. Hopper. 70.127 


PI. 392. Drawing for painting, Shakespeare at Dusk, 1935. Pencil on paper, 8% x 23'^(! inches. Whitney Museum of .American .\rt, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.453 


1*1, 393. Eleven A.M.. i():.'(i. Oil on (.iinas. uS . 3G iiiclics. Hiishhorn Musciiin and ShiI|jIuk- (.arclcn. Smithsonian Institntion, Washingldii, D.C. 



PI. 394. Mornings in a City, 
town, Massachusetts. 

1944. Oil on canvas, 44 x 60 inches. Williams College Museum of Art. Williams- 

PL 395. Drawing for painting. Morning in a 
City, 1944. Conte and pencil on paper, 814 x 
II inches. Whitney Museum of .American 
Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. 
Hopper. 70.207 

PI. 396. Drawing for painting, Morning in a 
City, 1944. Conte on paper, 22% x 15 inches. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

PI. 397. Drawing for painting, Morning in a 
City, 1944. Conte on paper, 8% x 11% 
inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 


PI. 398. High Noon, 1949. Oil on canvas, 28 x 40 inches. The Dayton An Institute, Ohio. 


PI. 399. Cape Cod Morning;, 1950. Oil 011 canvas, 34 .- 40 inches. I lie Sara R<il)\ Ininulatinn, New York. 


PI. 400. Morning Sun, 1952. Oil on canvas, 28% x 40% inches. Columbus Museum of An. Ohio; Howald lund Purchase. 



PI. 402. Dia^ving for painting. Mornini<; Sun, 1952. Conte on paper. 
12 X 19 inches. Whitney .Museum of .\niericaii Art, New \'ork: Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.244 

PI. 401. Drawings for painting, Moniiug Sun, 1952. Conte on paper, 
11 X 8I2 inches. Whitney Museum of .American .\rt. New N'ork; Be- 
quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.243 

PI. 403. Drawing for painting. Morning Sun. 
1952. Conte and pencil on paper, 12 y iSiS/jd 
inches, Whitney Museum of .American Art, 
New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 

->• - .-/4?,„^ ^ ^^ c' ^ ,, 


Tite Hoppers spent ihrir first sunniwr in South Trurn. Massachusetts, on Cape Cod in iQjo. .Ifler renting A. li. Cobb's house 
jar four summers, in k))^ they built their oxvn house on the Cape. In his paintings from these summers, Hopper depicted the 
surrounding houses, trees, and vistas. 

Hi|^HM||jflQtal|Qi|bm^ f 

PL 404. South Truro Chuich, i9;jo. Oil on canvas, 29 x 43 inches. Private collection. 



PI. 405. Corn Hill, 1930. Oil on canvas, 29 x 43 inches. Marion Koogler McNay \ii Insiiiuk-. San .\ntonio. Texas: Sylvan and \!arv 1 ong 

PI. 406. The Coal Box, 1930. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. 
Wadsworth Atheneuni, Hartford, Connecticut; The Ella Gallup 
Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection. 



PI. 407. Hills, South Truro, 1930. Oil on canvas, 27% x 43% inches. The Cleveland .Museum of Art; Hinman B. Hurlbut Collection. 



PI. 408. [Cobb's Barns, South Truro] 
phine N. Hopper. 70.1207 

1931. Oil on canvas, 34 x 50 inclus. Whimey .Museum of American .4rt, New \uik: Bequest of Jose- 


PI. 409. [Burly Cobb's Home, South Truro], c. 1930. Oil on canvas, 24% x 36 inches. Whitney Museum ot American Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1210 

PI. 410. [Cobb's Barns, South Truro], c. 1931. Contc 
and red crayon on paper, 15 x 22% inches. Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Jose- 
phine N. Hopper. 70.684 


PI. 411. [Cobb's Barns and Distant Houses], c. 1931. Oil on canvas, 28I/2 x 42 inches. W'hitney Museum of American Art, New ^ork; Bequest 
of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1206 

PI. 412. [Cobb's Barns and Distant Houses], c. 1931. Watercolor on 
paper, 21% x 29% inches. Whitney Museum of .American .Art, New 
York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1081 


PI. 413. The Camel's Hiiiiiji, 11131. Oil on canvas, 3^1/4 ^ 50^/8 inches. Mun.sonWilliainsI'ioctoi Institute. Museum of Art, I'tica. New York; 
Edward W. Root Bequest. 



^^ w^ ^*-* 

^ - HI milil^il I III MillBI——l I l|ii|lH'i|l'l'^ ^ 

PI. 414. Hoiisr of llie Fog Horn, No. 5, 1020 WaltKoldi dii ]i,ip(i \'f\ i()i_. inches, ^alc rnixersitv .Art (.allery. 
New Haven, Connecticut; Gift of Mr. and Mis. Gcuigc Huppci I Uch, B.A. 1932. 


PI. 415. Dauphimc Hous<-, 1932. ()\\ on canvas. 34 


PI. 416. Ryder's House, 1933. Oil on canvas, 36 x 50 inches. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: Gift of the National Academy of Design, Henry 
Ranger Fund. 


PI. 417. Cape Cod Aflcruoou, nj'^ti. Oil on canvas, 34 x 50 inches. Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 


PI. 418. Ciipe Cod Evening, 1939. Oil on canvas, 30 x 4" inches. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. John Hay Whitney. 

PI. 419. Drawing for painting. Cape Cod Evening, 1939. Conte on 
paper, 81/4 x 1 1 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.183 


PI. 420. October on Cape Cod, 1946. Oil on canvas, 26 x 42 inches. Collection of l.oretta and Robert R. I.ifton. 


PI. 421. Portrait of Orleans, 1950. Oil on canvas, 26 x 40 inches. Private collection. 


Speakina; of lii.s dislaslr for ilhtstrdlion . Hopper oruc insisted: 
"What I ivantcd to do was to paint .sit7ilis;lit on the side of a 
house." Recording the drama of sunlight was a lifelong interest. 


Fl. 4:^3. trees in Sunlight, Fare du Saint Cloud, 1907. Oil on canvas, 
23% X 28% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; 
Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1248 

PI. 422. Mass of Trees at Easthain, July— August 1962. Watertolor on paper, 21 x 28% inches. Whitney 
Museum of American Art. New \ork; Bequest of Josephine .\. Hopper. 70.1164 


PL 424. Rooms by the Sea, 1951. Oil on canvas, 29 x 40 inches. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut; Bequest of Stephen 
Carlton Clark, B.A. 1903. 


PI. 425. Second Stury Sunlight, i960. Oil on canvas, 40 x 50 inches. Whitney Museum of Auieiican Art, .New \oik. 60.54 



PI. 426. People in the Sun, i960. Oil on canvas, 40 x 60 inches. National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution; Gift of S. C. John- 
son and Son, Inc. 


PI. 427. A M'oniati in the Sun. 1961. Oil on canvas. 40 X 60 inches. Whitncv Miisciini of .Anicrican .\it. New York; Promised and Par- 
tial 50th Anniversary Gift of Mr. and Mrs. .\lbert Hackett in honor of Edith and Lloyd GotKlrith. P. 18.80 

PI. 428. Drawing for painting, A Woman in 
the Sun, c. 1961. Conte on paper, 18% x 11% 
inches. Private collection. 


PI. 429. Sun in an Empty Room, 1963. Oil on canvas, 28% x 39^4 inches. Private collection 


The information in this chronology has been compiled from the artist's 
ledgers and letters, various museum archives, exhibition catalogues, and 
published reviews. A complete chronology will follow in the catalogue 
raisonne. The titles of Hopper's works may be given in French or English, 
according to the listing in individual exhibition catalogues. 

1882 July 22, Edward Hopper born in Nyack, New York, son 1906 

of Garrett Henry Hopper and Elizabeth Griffiths Smith 

1888- Attended local private school, graduated from Nyack 

1899 High School. As a teenager, built himself a catboat with 

wood provided by his father. jqg^ 

1899- Winter, studied illustration at the Correspondence 

1900 School of Illustrating, a commercial art school in New 
York City at 114 West Thirty-fourth Street. 

1900- New York School of Art, studied illustration with Arthur 
1906 Keller and Frank Vincent DuMond, then painting 

under Robert Henri, William Merritt Chase, and Ken- 
neth Hayes Miller. In class with Gilford Beal, George 
Bellows, Homer Boss, Patrick Henry Bruce, Arthur 
Cederquist, Clarence K. Chatterton, Glenn O. Coleman, 
Guy Pene du Bois, Arnold Friedman, Julius Golz, Jr., 
Rockwell Kent, Vachel Lindsay, Walter Pach, Eugene 
Speicher, Carl Sprinchorn, Walter Tittle, and Clifton 1908 

Webb. Along with Douglas John Connah and W. T. 
Benda, taught the Saturday class in drawing from life, 
painting, sketching, and composition at the New York 
School of Art. 

Employed as an illustrator by C. C. Phillips 8: Company, 
24 East Twenty-second Street, New York. 

October, to Paris, lived at 48, rue de Lille in the build- 
ing of the Eglise Evangelique Baptiste. Continued 
friendship with Patrick Henry Bruce in Paris. 

June 27, left Paris to travel to London where he visited 
the National Gallery, the Wallace Collection, and West- 
minster Abbey. 

July 19, left London for Holland. Visited Amsterdam 
and Haarlem where Robert Henri was conducting a 
summer school for American students. July 26, arrived 
in Berlin. 

August 1, arrived in Brussels for two days before re- 
turning to Paris. 

August 21, sailed for New York. 

Worked as a commercial artist in New York. 

March 9-31, included in "Exhibition of Paintings and 
Drawings by Contemporary American Artists" at the 
old Harmonic Club building, 43-45 West Forty-second 
Street, New York; exhibited for the first time with 
several other Henri students; exhibited three oils. The 

Louvre and Seine, The Bridge of the Arts, and The 
Park at Saint Cloud, and one drawing, Une De?nimon- 
daine. The exhibition was organized by Arnold Fried- 
man, Julius Golz, Jr., and Glenn O. Coleman. Also 
included were paintings by George Bellows, Guy Pene 
du Bois, Lawrence T. Dresser, Edward R. Keete, Rock- 
well Kent, George McKay, Howard McLean, Carl 
Sprinchorn, and G. Leroy Williams. 

1909 March 18, arrived in Paris via Cherbourg. 

May, painted out-of-doors along the Seine frequently. 

Visited Fontainebleau. 

June, visited St.-Germain-en-Laye. 

July 31, sailed on Holland-America Line to New York, 
arriving on August 9. 

1910 April 1-27, included in "Exhibition of Independent 
Artists," organized by John Sloan, Robert Henri, and 
Arthur B. Davies, at 29-31 West Thirty-fifth Street, New 
York; exhibited one oil. The Louvre. 

Mid-May, returned to Paris. May 26, left Paris for 
Madrid. While in Spain, visited Toledo and attended a 
bullfight. Returned to Paris on June 11. 

July 1, sailed for New York. 

After returning to New York, began to earn his living 
by commercial art and illustration; painted in free time 
and in the summers. 

1912 February 22-March 5, included in "Exhibition of Paint- 
ings," The MacDowell Club of New York, at 108 West 
Fifty-fifth Street; exhibited five oils: River Boat, Valley 
of the Seine, The Wine Shop, Sailing, and British 
Steamer. Also included were paintings by George Bel- 
lows, Randall Davey, and Guy Pene du Bois. 

Summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts, where he painted 
with Leon Kroll. 

1913 January 9-21, included in "Exhibition of Paintings," 
The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited two oils: 
La Berge and Squarn Light. 

February 15-March 15, included in the Armory Show 
(International Exhibition of Modern Art); exhibited 
one oil. Sailing, which sold for $250. 

Moved to 3 Washington Square North, New York, 
where he lived until his death. 

1914 January 22-February 1, included in "Exhibition of 
Paintings," The MacDowell Club of New York; exhib- 
ited two oils: Gloucester Harbor and The Bridge. 

April 30-May 17, included in "Exhibition of Water 
Colors, Pastels, and Drawings by Four Groups of 
Artists," The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited 
On the Qiiai, Land of Fog, The Railroad, The Port, 
and Street in Paris. 

Summer in Ogunquit, Maine. 

October 10-31, included in "Opening Exhibition, Sea- 
son 1914-1915," at the Montross Gallery, 550 Fifth 
Avenue, New York; exhibited one oil, Road in Maine. 

1915 Took up etching. 

February 11-21, included in "Exhibition of Paintings," 
The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited two oils: 
Soir Bleu and New York Corner (Corner Saloon). Ex- 
hibition also included the paintings of George Bellows, 
John Sloan, Randall Davey, Eugene Speicher, and others. 

Second summer in Ogunquit, Maine. 

November 18-28, included in "Exhibition of Paintings," 
The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited three oils: 
American Village, Rocks and Houses, and The Dories. 

1916 February, eight of his Paris watercolor caricatures re- 
produced in Arts and Decoration. 

Summer on Monhegan Island, Maine. 

1917 February 15-25, included in "Exhibition of Paintings 
and Sculpture by Mary L. Alexander, George Bellows, 
A. Stirling Calder, Clarence K. Chatterton, Andrew 
Dasburg, Randall Davey, Robert Henri, Edward Hop- 
per, Leon Kroll, Thalia W. Millett, Frank Osborn, 
John Sloan," The MacDowell Club of New York; ex- 
hibited three oils: Portrait of Mrs. Sullivan, Rocks and 
Sand, and Summer Street. 

April 10-May 6, included in the "First Annual Exhibi- 
tion," American Society of Independent Artists; ex- 
hibited two oils: America?! Village and Sea at Ogunquit. 

Summer on Monhegan Island, Maine. 

1918 March 25-May 1, included in "An Exhibition of Etch- 
ings," Chicago Society of Etchers; exhibited Somewhere 
in France. 

April 27-May 12, included in "Exhibition of Water 
Colors, Pastels, and Drawings by Four Groups of 
Artists," The MacDowell Club of New York, along 
with Louis Burt, Clara M. Davey, Randall Davey, Ben- 
jamin Greenstein, Bernard Gussow, Robert Henri, Amy 
Londoner, Marjorie Organ, Louise de G. Rogers, John 
Sloan, Ruth Townsend, and others; exhibited eight 
Summer on Monhegan Island, Maine. 

October, Hopper's poster Smash the Him, which won 
the first prize in the "citizens" class nationwide competi- 
tion of the National Service Section of the United States 
Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, was ex- 
hibited with those of nineteen other contestants in the 
window of Gimbel's department store on Broadway. 

1919 Summer on Monhegan Island, Maine. 

1920 January 14-28, Hopper's first one-man exhibition. Whit- 
ney Studio Club, 147 West Fourth Street, New York; 
showed sixteen oils painted in Paris and in Monhegan, 
Maine: Le Bistro, Le Pont des Arts, Le Pont-Neuf, 

Noire Dame de Paris, Jiiin, Apres-midi de Pnuteinps, 
Le Pare de St. Cloud, Le Q_uai des Grands Auu^usliiis. 
Le Louvre et la Seine, Les Lavoirs, Black Head, Monhe- 
gan, The Little Cove, Monliegan, Rocks and Houses, 
Squarn Light, La Cite, and Road in Maine. 

1921 March 20-Apiil 20, included in "Annual Exhibition of 
Paintings and Sculpture by Members of the Club," 
Whitney Studio Club; exhibited one oil. The Park 

1922 March 25-April 23, included in "Annual Exhibition of 
Paintings and Sculpture by Members of the Club," 
Whitney Studio Club; exhibited three etchings, and 
one oil, New York Interior. 

October, exhibition of ten Paris watercolor caricatures 
at the Whitney Studio Club. 

1923 Attended the Whitney Studio Club evening sketch class 
and made numerous lifedrawings. 

February i-March 11, included in "Exhibition of Etch- 
ings," Chicago Society of Etchers, The Art Institute of 
Chicago; exhibited two etchings: East Side Interior and 
Evening Wind. Hopper was awarded the Logan Prize of 
twenty-five dollars for the etching East Side Interior. 

February 4-March 25, included in "118th Exhibition of 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts," Philadelphia; 
exhibited one oil, New York Restaurant. 

February, included in "National Arts Club, Humorist's 
Exhibition"; exhibited two Paris watercolor caricatures: 
Le Alilitaire and Sargent de Ville. 

Made the last of his etchings. Summer in Gloucester, 
Massachusetts. Began to paint watercolors regularly. 

November 19-December 20, included in "A Group Ex- 
hibition of Watercolor Paintings, Pastels, Drawings, and 
Sculpture by American and European Artists," at the 
Brooklyn Museum; exhibited six watercolors: Deck of 
a Beam Trawler, House luith a Bay Windoiu, The 
Mansard Roof, Beam Trawler Seal, Shacks at Lanesville, 
and Italian Quarter, Gloucester. 

December 7, 1923, the Brooklyn Museum purchased 
The Mansard Roof for $100. 

1924 February 3-March 23, included in "119th Annual Ex- 
hibition," Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 
Philadelphia; exhibited one oil, New York Interior. 

March 20-April 22, exhibited in "Fourth International 
Water Color Exhibition," The Art Institute of Chicago; 
included four watercolors: Deck of a Beam Trawler, 
Houses of Squam Light, Beam Trawler Seal, and Italian 
Quarter, Gloucester. 

May 1-25, included in "Annual Members Exhibition," 
Whitney Studio Club; exhibited one oil, New York 

Married Josephine Verstille Nivison on July 9, 1924, ai 
the Eglise Evangclique on West Sixteenth Street, New 
York. Guy Pene du Bois was Hopper's best man. 

Summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts. 

October-November, Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New 
York, exhibition of recent watercolors. All eleven shown 
and fi\e additional ones were sold. The exhibition was a 
success, enabling Hopper to give up commercial work 
and illustration. (His illustrations were published in 
Scribner's through 1927.) 

1925 May 18-May 30, included in "Tenth Annual Exhibi- 
tion," Whitney Studio Club at the Anderson Galleries; 
exhibited two oils: Yonkers and New York Corner. 

June through late September, visited James Mountain, 
Colorado, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, where he painted 
seven watercolors. 

1926 February 17-March 6, included in an exhibition at the 
Boston Art Club; exhibited five oils: The Louvre, Le 
Pont des Arts, Le Quai des Grands Augustins, Ecluse de 
la Monnaie, and Notre Dame de Paris. 

February, included in 'Today in American Art, " Frank 
K. M. Rehn Gallery; exhibited one oil, Sunday. 

April 13-May 1, "Exhibition of Water Colors and Etch- 
ings by Edward Hopper," St. Botolph Club, Boston; ex- 
hibited twenty-one prints and nineteen watercolors. 
Took train trip to Eastport, Maine, for several days, 
then to Bangor. 

Traveled by boat to Rockland, Maine, for seven weeks, 
then on to Gloucester, Massachusetts. 

1927 Purchase of automobile. 

Summer at Two Lights, Cape Elizabeth, Maine. Visited 
Mrs. Summer at Two Lights. Visited Mrs. Catherine 
Budd in Charlestown, New Hampshire, on return 
trip. Made an excursion across the Connecticut River 
into Vermont. 

1928 January 20, made his last print, a drypoint. Portrait 
of Jo. 

Summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts. Trip to Ogunquit, 
Maine, to visit Clarence K. and Annette Chatterton of 
Vassar. Traveled through New Hampshire and Vermont 
before returning to New York. 

1929 January 21-February 2, one-artist exhibition at Frank 
K. M. Rehn Gallery of twelve oils, ten watercolors, and 
a group of drawings. 

April i-May 11, trip to Charleston, South Carolina. 
Summer, visit to Topsfield, Massachusetts, home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Samuel A. Tucker. Second stay at Two Lights, 
Cape Elizabeth, Maine. Trips to Essex and Pemaquid 

1930 Visited with Edward and Grace Root at Hampton Col- 
lege, Clinton, New York, before going to South Truro, 
Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. Rented A. B. Cobb's house, 
"Bird Cage Cottage," on a hill. 

1931 Honorable Mention and cash award, First Baltimore 
Pan-American Exhibition. 

1931- Summers in "Bird Cage Cottage" in South Truro, 

1932 Massachusetts. 

1932 March, elected an associate member of the National 
Academy of Design, which he declined as they had re- 
jected his paintings in years past. Took additional studio 
space at 3 Washington Square North, New York. 

November-January 5, 1933, included in the first Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art Biennial (and in almost 
every later Whitney Biennial and Annual). 

1933 Trip to Murray Bay, Quebec Province, Canada, then 
visited Ogunquit and Two Lights, Maine, and Boston. 
Returned to South Truro, Massachusetts, to "Bird Cage 

October 1, purchased land in South Truro and returned 
to New York later that month. 

November i-December 7, retrospective exhibition at 
the Museum of Modern Art, New York; exhibited 
twenty-five oils, thirty-seven watercolors, and eleven 

1934 January 2-16, retrospective at the Arts Club of Chicago. 

Early May, went to South Truro, Massachusetts. While 
building studio house at South Truro (in which they 
spent every successive summer except where noted), the 
Hoppers stayed at the Jenness' house. The house was 
completed on July 9, and they remained through late 

1935 Awarded Temple Gold Medal, Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, and First Purchase Prize in watercolor, 
Worcester Art Museum. 

Trip from South Truro to East Montpelier, Vermont. 

1936 Visited Plainsfield, Vermont. 

1937 Awarded First W. A. Clark Prize and Corcoran Gold 
Medal, Corcoran Gallery of Art. 

September, visited South Royalton (White River Valley), 

1938 September, visit to South Royalton during hurricane. 
Stayed in South Truro, Massachusetts, through late 

Acquired rear studio at 3 Washington Square North for 
Jo Hopper. 

1939 Returned to New York early from summer at South 
Truro in order to travel to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to 
be on the jury of the Carnegie Institute. Painted no 
watercolors this year or next, but painted oils in South 
Truro studio. 

1940 Traveled from South Truro to New York to register to 
vote. Returned to New York early from the Cape in 
order to vote for Wendell Willkie against Franklin 

1941 Spring, trip to Albany to jury exhibition. 

Summer (May through July), traveled to the West Coast 
by car. Visited Colorado and Utah. Drove through 
Nevada desert to Pacific Coast and north through Cali- 
fornia to Oregon Coast. Returned via Wyoming and 
Yellowstone Park. Returned to house at South Truro 
late in August. 

1942 Awarded Ada S. Garrett Prize, The Art institute ot 

1943 March, traveled to Washington to be on the Corcoran 

Summer, having no gas to travel to Cape Cod, made 
first trip to Mexico by train. Visited Mexico City, 
Saltillo, and Monterey, returning in early October. 
Painted four watercolors from roof of Guarhado House, 
Saltillo, and two from window of Monterey Hotel. 

1944 South Truro. Trips to Boston and Hyannis for automo- 
bile repairs. 

1945 Awarded Logan Art Institute Medal and Honorarium, 
The Art Institute of Chicago. 

May, elected member of the National Institute of Arts 
and Letters. 

1946 Awarded Honorable Mention, The Art Institute of 

May, drove to Saltillo, Mexico. Painted four water- 
colors. July in Grand Tetons; August through Novem- 
ber in South Truro. 

1947 November, trip to Indianapolis to serve on jury of 
Indiana artists exhibition. 

1950 February ii-March 26, retrospective exhibition at the 
Whitney Museum of American Art; exhibition shown 
at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in April, and the 
Detroit Institute of Arts in June. Awarded honorary 
degree. Doctor of Fine Arts, by the Art Institute of 
Chicago. Hopper attended the openings in Boston and 
Detroit and received his degree in Chicago. 

1951 May 28, left by car for third trip to Mexico via Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee. In Saltillo for a month. Visited 
Santa Fe, New Mexico, briefly on returning. Stayed in 
South Truro until November. 

1952 Hopper was one of the four artists cfiosen Ijy the 
American Federation of Arts to represent the United 
States in the Venice Biennale. 

Summer in South Truro. 

December, left for Mexico. Stayed eight days in El Paso, 
Texas. Visited Posada de la Presa Guanajuato, and 
spent one month at Mitla, Oaxaca. Visited Puel)la and 
returned via Laredo. 

1953 March 1, returned to New York from Mexico, where lie 
painted two watercolors. 

Joined Raphael Soyer and other representational paint- 
ers in publishing Reality (on editorial committee). 

June, honorary degree. Doctor of Letters, Rutgers Uni- 

July, South Truro. September 15, to Gloucester and on 
to Charlestown, New Hampshire, to visit Mrs. William 

1954 Awarded First Prize for VVatercolor, Butler Art Institute, 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

1955 March 31, left for Mexico through May 1. Summer and 
fall in South Truro. 

Gold Medal for Painting presented by the National 
Institute of Arts and Letters in the name of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Letters. 

1956 Awarded Huntington Hartford Foundation fellowship. 

December 9, arri\ed at Huntington Hartford Founda- 
tion, Pacific Palisades, California. 

1957 June 6, left Huntington Hartford Foundation. 

July 22 through late October in South Truro. 

Received New York Board of Trade's Salute to the 
Arts Award, and First Prize, Fouth International Hall- 
mark Art Award. 

1959 July 15, to South Truro for summer. 

October trip to Manchester, New Hampshire, for No- 
vember one-artist exhibition at Currier Gallery of Art. 

December, this exhibition shown at Rhode Island School 
of Design. Visited Providence, Rhode Island, as the 
guests of Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm Chace. 

i960 January, exhibition at Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, 
Received Art in America Annual Award. 

Spring, met with the artists' group who had published 
Reality at home of John Koch to protest the predomi- 
nance of the "gobbledegook influences" of abstract art 
at the Whitney Museum and the Museum ol Modern 

1962 October-November, "The Complete Graphic Work ol 
Edward Hopper," Philadelphia Museum ol .^rt; in- 
cluded fifty-two prints; publication of a catalogue 
raisonne; show later went to Worcester Art Museum. 

1963 Received award from the St. Botolph Club, Boston. 
Retrospective exhibition at the Arizona Art Gallery. 
July 4 through late November, in South Truro. 

1964 May. illness kept Hopper from painting. 

Awarded M. V. Khonstamn Prize for Painting, The An 
Institute of Chicago. 

September 29-November 29, major retrospective ex- 
hibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art; 
shown from December (through January 19(15) at the 
Art Institute of Chicago. 

1965 February 18-March 21, retrospective shown at the De- 
troit Institute of Arts and, April 7-May 9, at the City 
Art Museum of St. Louis. 

Awarded honorary degree, Doctor of Fine Arts, Phila- 
delphia College of Art. 

July 16, death of Hopper's sister Marion in Nyack, 
New York. 

Last painting. Two Comedians. 

1966 Awarded Edward MacDowell Medal. 

1967 May 15, Edward Hopper died in his studio at 3 Wash- 
ington Square North. 

September 22-January 8, 1968, Hopper's work was 
featured in the United States Exhibition at the Bienal 
de Sao Paulo 9. 

Henry Varnum Poor presenting the Cold 
Medal for Painting to Edward Hopper for 
the American Acadcmv of Arts and 1 etiers. 
May 25, 1955.